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Literature

Technical service agreement for sulfuric acid alkylation

A strategic partnership to maximise alkylation unit performance. Maximizing the performance of your alkylation unit is a high priority, but challenging in today’s world with a changing workforce, increased workloads, and technology advances. DuPont can help you answer your challenges ...


StarLNG™ leading standardised small-to mid-scale LNG plants

Meeting future energy challenges. Growing importance of natural gas. In the bid to find cleaner, more environmentally sound sources of energy, the spotlight is increasingly shining on natural gas. Burning methane, the principle component of natural gas, produces around 30% less carbon ...


Linde HiQ helium

HiQ Helium is high purity gas for laboratory and process control instrumentation.  Helium is a typical GC carrier gas and mixtures of helium and hydrogen are often used as a GC-FID fuel gas mixture.


Refinery applications with advanced mass transfer technology

Sulzer Chemtech is the process engineering and equipment manufacturing division of the international Sulzer Corporation, with its headquarters in Winterthur, Switzerland. Areas of expertise include equipment and application know-how in separation and mixing technology. Products include ...


Designing deepcut vacuum units that really work

Every barrel of vacuum gas oil (VGO) you can save from being reduced to coke in the delayed coker unit is a barrel more that can go to the FCCU. That’s a good reason to raise HVGO cutpoint. But how to do it? Some people think the job can be done just by running computer models in ...


Passion for engineering

Partnering with our customers. Industrial process plants are among the most complex structures that people have ever built. Worldwide, there are only a handful of companies with the detailed know-how needed to successfully deliver turnkey industrial plants. Linde Engineering is a pioneer ...


High sulphur recovery at low cost with SmartSulf™

Process Principle: Thermal stage: acid gases are burnt with air to produce sulphur at high temperature thanks to Claus reaction. COS and CS2 hydrolysis: COS and CS2 from the process gases are hydrolyzed at high temperature in the first zone of the SmartSulf™ reactor operating in ...


IFPACC™ a new generation of structured packings for gas treatment

A joint development between IFP Energies nouvelles and PROSERNAT. Characteristics: A novel structured packing geometry, Adapted to the constraints of acid gas removal by amine solvents, Geometric area of 200 m2/m3, Tested at industrial scale (Ø 1 m column), High effective to geometric ...


Recovering platinum/rhenium from spent hydrocarbon processing catalysts

Now, practical, cost-effective recovery of platinum/ rhenium reforming catalysts, regardless of solubility– with maximum returns. Platinum / rhenium catalysts are widely used in the processing of hydrocarbon products. As rhenium values have increased, recovery techniques from spent ...


PROGNOST®-SILver

PROGNOST® has protected the investments of rotating equipment operators for twenty years. The vital role of a machinery protection system to mitigate the risk of serious damages is covered by PROGNOST®-SILver. This technology has proven its effectiveness and reliability on a daily ...


CE valve - the efficient ring valve

Many of the processes that have Significant importance for industrial plant operation can cause extreme stress on compressor valves, e.g. by the presence of particles, catalyst debris, liquids or polymerides. Particles carried along with the gas flow or polymers can lead to clogging of ...


Thermal conversion – converting the bottom of the barrel into higher-value products

Faced with falling demand for low-value products such as residue fuel oil, operators are seeking proven, cost-effective technologies to help increase the value of their residue streams by revamping and debottlenecking existing units. Shell Global Solutions’ thermal conversion processes ...


An innovative new technology platform for FCC distillate maximization

BASF has developed an innovative catalytic technology platform for maximizing distillate yields from a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit. This unique platform, designated Prox-SMZ for Proximal Stable Matrix and Zeolite, combines attributes from both high zeolite and high matrix activity ...


Process heater burners, flare systems, thermal oxidizers, catalyst systems

With over two decades of overcoming combustion and emissions challenges, UOP Callidus consistently leads the industry by setting the standards for maximum performance and minimum emissions. Burners that set the standards: Innovation and technology are the keys to UOP Callidus burners. ...


Maximize the value of your naphtha feedstocks and downstream processes

New solutions for changing needs Lighten the burden of heavy feedstocks with Topsoe catalysts, process designs and technologies. If your refinery is like most, you’re under pressure to squeeze more value out of heavier feedstocks, and this presents new challenges for catalysts. To ...


The StarLNG™ family

The StarLNG™ concept was originally developed for the typical small scale capacity range of 100 to 600 tonnes per day (tpd) and was based on Linde’s proprietary single mixed refrigerant liquefaction process LIMUM®1 using plate-fin heat exchangers (PFHE). During concept ...


Linde HiQ hydrogen

HiQ Hydrogen is high purity gas for laboratories and process control instrumentation. Use with HiQ Synthetic Air for the perfect GC-FID fuel gas mixture.  Helium is also widely used as a typical GC carrier gas.


Liquid hydrocarbon treating (LPG/PP/BB) - ADIP process

Applications: Besides its use as a regenerative process for the reduction of H2S to very low levels in gases, the ADIP process is also used to selectively reduce H2S and COS to very low levels in liquid hydrocarbons, such as propane-propylene (PP), butanebutene (BB), LPG and NGLs. The ...


XyMax℠-2 and LPI technology and services

The XyMax℠-2 Process is the latest generation of vapor phase isomerization technology and the LPI Process is the latest generation of liquid phase isomerization technology. These isomerization processes are also licensed by ExxonMobil’s alliance partner, Axens, as part of the ParamaXSM ...


Linde HiQ safety training

No matter whether gas usage is a large or seemingly small part of your company’s total operations, teaching your employees the properties and potential risks of different gases can lead to increased levels of safety. With over 150 years in the gas business, Linde instructors are ...


Hyper compressor

The Hyper Compressor is a high-pressure reciprocating compressor for low density polyethylene plants and compress ethylene with discharge pressure up to 3’500 bara (50’000 psia). Burckhardt Compression has an outstanding experience of over 55 years in manufacturing Hyper Compressors. ...


ExxonMobil catalysts and licensing: a world of opportunity

ExxonMobil Catalysts and Licensing offers its customers of high-performing catalysts backed by a legacy of innovation and a commitment to maintaining strong customer relationships. ExxonMobil is constantly improving its catalysts as a leading operator of refining and petrochemical processes. ...


EDV wet scrubbing systems with LoTOx technology

For control of NOX emissions, the BELCO® EDV® Wet Scrubbing System uses a patented LoTOx™ process from The Linde Group. In the LoTOx™ process, NOX compounds are oxidized with ozone to form compounds that are easily removed from the flue gas by the same liquid-gas contact ...


GXM3™ high capacity sulphur granulation unit

Sulphur granulation is a size enlargement process. Small sulphur seeds (undersized granules) are repeatedly coated with a liquid sulphur spray and cooled. With repeated application of liquid sulphur, the seed increases in volume and weight. As the granule is enlarged, each coating of liquid ...


XperSEAL - reliable rod sealing for zero gas leakage from reciprocating compressors

We set standards. HOERBIGER designs, manufactures and services pressure packings, piston rings and rider bands for original equipment manufacturers and compressor operators. We design and test our sealing systems for the most challenging operating conditions. From chemically inert to highly ...


GT-BTX PluS® meeting the world’s clean gasoline needs

As the worldwide refining industry becomes more intricately linked, the specifications for fuels are converging around certain common aspects. Chief among these are the environmental limits on benzene and sulfur content in motor gasoline. GTC Technology’s GT-BTX PluS provides an ...


FCC additive technologies

BASF offers a complete range of FCC additives to meet refiners’ environmental and performance requirements. In response to increasing concerns about the environment and the global drive for ever-tightening emissions regulations, BASF has developed, and continuously refines, an innovative ...


KOC-15™- Flexible and effective way to lower afterburn in your FCC unit

KOC-15 additive is Albemarle’s most widely used platinum-based combustion promoter, and is commercially proven to provide many refiners with a reliable, low-cost and flexible solution to afterburn and excess carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. In the regenerator, the coke (carbon) on ...


MECS® HexWall™ Baffles

For sulfuric acid plant sulfur burners and spent Acid recovery furnaces. Interlocking hexagonal ceramic blocks for fast installation and superior structural stability. MECS® HexWall™ is a versatile, mechanically stable system consisting of a series of stackable six-sided blocks ...


Linde HiQ SPECTRA VOC standards EPA method TO-14A

The US EPA’s Compendium Method TO-14A, “Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Ambient Air Using Specially Prepared Canisters With Subsequent Analysis By Gas Chromatography” is used extensively by analysts for both ambient air studies and indoor air quality ...


Tonnage air separation plants - general products

For production of oxygen, nitrogen, argon and ̶ in some special cases ̶ other  rare gases (krypton, xenon, helium, neon) through cryogenic rectification of air. The products can be produced in gaseous form for pipeline supply or as cryogenic liquid for storage and distribution by ...


CORAL™ SMR

Improving the fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) profit potential of heavy feeds. SMR technology features. The need to process heavy feeds in FCC units continues to grow. Albemarle’s innovative SMR catalyst technology addresses the three fundamentals of heavy feed cracking: coke ...


Advanced rental flare technology

Rental Services: The UOP Callidus Rental Group has the unique ability to bypass the normal work flow with our own project design and management team to fulfill all of our customer’s rental needs. If it’s not in our vast inventory of existing parts and equipment, we can create ...


Flow-pressure of lubricating grease according to DIN51805 kesternich

Flow-properties of lubrication grease at low temperatures are a measure of great significance for central lubrication systems of vehicles and machineries. This property can best be measured according to the method of Kesternich (DIN 5108). The original manual and time-consuming method ...


The preparation and certification of a 30ppt calibration gas mixture

Challenges in the preparation and certification of a 30 parts per trillion (ppt), also referred to as 30x 10-12, sulfur hexafluoride gas calibration mixture used as a transfer standard for the determination of anthropogenic carbon dioxide are described. 30 ppt equals to about 1.5 minutes ...


TransPlus℠ NG technology and services

The TransPlus℠ NG process is the low-cost, high-conversion solution to effectively upgrade C9+ heavy aromatics and toluene/benzene into higher-value products (mixed xylenes and high purity benzene). The TransPlus NG process which is based on a proprietary high-activity catalyst system ...


Channel baffles: improving efficiency on trays with low vapor loading

Sour water strippers, wastewater benzene strippers, or any other column that operates with low vapor rates often have active areas that are easily oversized for the actual operating vapor traffic. For optimum tray efficiency, good contacting of the liquid flowing across the tray deck with ...


Important tray design features that improve column operating reliability

How often does Maintenance personnel open a column during a shutdown and find tray panels fallen without any obvious damage? How about tray valves stuck in the bottoms pump suction? While the initial reaction may be to blame faulty installation where the hardware was not properly tightened, ...


Liquid-liquid separation technology

In industrial process equipments liquid-liquid mixtures are produced by essentially two different mechanisms. a) Mixing of the phases in either purpose built equipment, mechanical mixers, static mixers where pressure energy is applied to increase the surface free energy of the fluids to ...


Maximizing light cycle oil recovery in the FCC main fractionator

Refiners operating FCCU's have adjusted their operating strategies to maximize light cycle oil production to meet the increased demand for automotive diesel. Catalyst formulations and reactor conditions can alter yields, but the refinery cannot take full advantage of the increased LCO ...