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Literature

High aromatic/nitrogen feeds cause rapid initial deactivation in pilot plants

A feed sent to C Solutions in Thessaloniki, Greece caused catalyst to deactivate very rapidly when introduced on day one of a pilot plant run.  Analysis showed the feed to be full of high boiling aromatics and high in nitrogen. The pilot plant run was restarted with the usual ...


MECS® SolvR™ technology for regenerative SO2 recovery.

An energy efficient so absorption process with nearly zero SO2 emmissions. MECS® SolvR™ Technology employs an absorption solvent that is readily available, environmentally friendly and lower in cost than solvents used in other SO2 absorption processes. The technology can be ...


Modular air separation plants

Meeting today’s gas supply challenges in air separation. Companies considering investing in air separation units need to balance a number of factors. A reliable design offering minimal technical risk and maximum operational flexibility is essential to ensure process continuity and ...


UOP adsorbent solutions in refining

A wide variety of contaminants can be effectively and economically removed from numerous hydrocarbon streams in petroleum refineries via non-regenerative and regenerative adsorbents. It is necessary to remove contaminants, including: H2S, COS, CS2, HCl, HF, Hg (elemental mercury), AsH3 ...


Ifpexol™ IFPEn integrated process for natural gas full treatment

Ifpexol uses refrigerated methanol for the complete treatment (dehydration, NGL recovery and sweetening) of natural gas. The Ifpexol process is based on two independent steps. Methanol is used as hydrate inhibitor in a cold process for NGL extraction : The mixture of methanol and water ...


Fractional crystallization

Crystallization is one of the most powerful purification methods available in process engineering. Fractional crystallization is a stagewise separation technique that relies upon liquid-solid phase transition and enables multicomponent mixtures to be split into narrow fractions, ultimately ...


Linde HiQ helium

HiQ Helium is high purity gas for laboratory and process control instrumentation.  Helium is a typical GC carrier gas and mixtures of helium and hydrogen are often used as a GC-FID fuel gas mixture.


GT-DWC dividing wall column design saves cost and energy

GTC Technology is widely known for innovation, technical knowledge and commitment to excellence through proprietary technologies and customized solutions. Our process equipment technology offerings include the dividing wall column (DWC), which separates a multi-component feed into three ...


Capital parts - highest quality for lowest life cycle costs

Burckhardt Compression is one of the market leaders in the field of reciprocating compressors. As the only manufacturer that offers a complete range of reciprocating compressor technologies, we are ideally suited to support you in every situation. With more than 170 years of experience, ...


MEG regeneration & reclaiming technology

Benefits of Installing a MEG Recovery Unit - Strong increase in demand for natural gas leads to more development of deep offshore gas deposits with deeper wells, longer subsea pipelines, higher pressures and lower temperatures. Under such conditions, hydrate formation - that blocks flow ...


LNG import terminals

LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) is becoming the preferred method of transport and storage of natural gas. In the LNG value chain, LNG-receiving terminals play an important role, allowing for the sourcing of LNG from all over the world and creating a new dynamic in the local natural gas market. ...


Sensor simulation instead of sensor stimulation

Many of these are rated as critical and call for a reliable and ample machine protection system. These protection systems are available in a variety of designs. They span from eutectic devices to SIL certified online equipment with diagnostic capabilities. The regular integrity validation ...


Sulphur Recovery SUPERCLAUS® Process

The SUPERCLAUS® process recovers elemental sulfur from H2S-containing gases originating from gas treating and sour  water stripper plants. Yields up to 99.2% overall sulfur recovery, without any further tail gas cleanup, are possible. The SUPERCLAUS® process consists of a ...


Designing deepcut vacuum units that really work

Every barrel of vacuum gas oil (VGO) you can save from being reduced to coke in the delayed coker unit is a barrel more that can go to the FCCU. That’s a good reason to raise HVGO cutpoint. But how to do it? Some people think the job can be done just by running computer models in ...


COSWEET™ deep COS removal from natural gas

By combining amine absorption with catalytic COS hydrolysis, COSWEET™ allows gas sweetening, either total (removal of both H₂S + CO₂) or selective (removal of H₂S mainly), with complete COS removal. The three steps of COSWEET™ process consists in: * Removing the bulk ...


GO-ULTRA™ catalysts

Get more from your gas oil feed streams. Facing today’s economic challenges, refiners worldwide are seeking to restore margins and increase profits by maximizing yields from their operations. For the gas oil market, Albemarle’s research and development team has created a breakthrough ...


Grading & guard materials

Maximum catalyst protection and optimum pressure drop management. With the increased levels of heavy and non conventional crude oils in the refinery diets, state-of the art catalysts need state of the art Grading and Guard Materials to create the best working environment mitigating pressure ...


Precious metals recovery and refining for global industry

Sabin Metal Corporation is the largest domestically owned, independent precious metals refiner in North America, serving a worldwide customer base. We recover PGMs (platinum, palladium, ruthenium, rhodium), rhenium, gold, silver, and other precious metals from virtually every source and ...


MECS®–Thermo Z™ welded plate heat exchangers

Plant engineers in the know choose MECS®–THERMO Z™ for maximum waste heat recovery and the best delivered value. MECS®–ThermoZ™ is a highly efficient heat exchanger suitable for many industrial processes where gas temperatures may be up to 1500°F (816°C). ...


Callidus low NOx staged gas burner (CSGL)

The UOP Callidus (CSGL) is rapidly becoming the preferred staged gas low NOx process burner. An innovative design has been employed which increases the burner’s stability and allows for optimal performance on typical refinery fuel gases and 100% natural gas.The new design also increases ...


Amine and solvent management around the world

Our vast global experience providing online amine hygiene and solvent management to the ammonia, gas, oil, and steel industry places MPR in a unique position to serve its customers. Our dedicated research and development group continues to make improvements in our technologies meeting ...


PROGNOST®-SenSim

Enhance safety proof testintervals (PTI). Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS) perform specified functions to achieve a safe state of process when dangerous conditions occur. It is their aim to mitigate consequential events. Safety loops of Safety Instrumented Systems consist of: - Sensors - ...


PxMax℠ technology and services

ExxonMobil’s PxMax℠ process is the industry benchmark Selective Toluene Disproportionation (STDP) process. The technology, based on the ex-situ selectivated EM-2300 catalyst, offers unmatched paraxylene selectivity and product yields, as well as exceptionally long and stable cycles. ...


Tonnage air separation plants - general products

For production of oxygen, nitrogen, argon and ̶ in some special cases ̶ other  rare gases (krypton, xenon, helium, neon) through cryogenic rectification of air. The products can be produced in gaseous form for pipeline supply or as cryogenic liquid for storage and distribution by ...


Sour water stripper

Applications: Many process units throughout a refinery generate significant quantities of sour water. Sour water collected within a refinery contains both H2S and NH3. These components are present as ammonium hydrosulfide (NH4HS) within the sour water. NH4HS is the salt of a weak base ...


Multi-stage reaction catalysts (MSRC)

BASF has introduced its latest FCC catalyst manufacturing innovation, the MSRC platform. This breakthrough manufacturing development takes advantage of staged reactions with different catalytic attributes much the same way that staged hydrotreating catalyst loading permits different reaction ...


Linde HiQ accredited calibration gas mixtures

Linde Gas - In an age of global trade, analytical measuring results have to be comparable. This requirement is meanwhile satisfied by a large number of international directives and standards, e.g. DIN EN ISO/IEC 170251. Such regulations call for the metrological traceability of measuring ...


Linde HiQ overview brochure

HiQ represents the best there is in the world of high purity gases, process and calibration gas mixtures, precision engineered gas supply solutions, and the high quality services needed for optimum results. Precise answers to individual needs. Customised to meet specific requirements. ...


Reactor Internals

State-of-the-art hardware to help optimize catalyst utilization, maximize cycle length and increase process safety. The performance of hydroprocessing reactors is determined not only by the catalyst loaded but also by the design of their internals. Shell Global Solutions’ internals ...


Opportunity knocks

A group of interesting articles* deals with opportunity crudes, a mixed breed that includes very heavy, sour and high total acid number types as well as those with unexceptional naphthenic acid content but which do have significant concentrations of aliphatic acids or possess the ability ...


Cycle life estimates for catalyst reload vary from 7 to 44 months

It is very difficult to accurately predict the cycle life for a hydroprocessing unit. This is especially true with today’s highly variable feed slates. Despite this fact, catalyst suppliers are always asked to estimate cycle life when bidding for a catalyst reload, and they comply ...


Application of PURASPEC, absorbents in catalytic reformers

Catalytic reforming units (CRUs) continue to be one of the refinery’s most important units. They produce high octane product for gasoline pool blending and are a major source of hydrogen for the refinery. Contaminants such as sulphur and chloride are common problems which can significantly ...


Maximizing diesel recovery in your columns

Increased demand for automotive diesel is challenging refiners to adjust operating strategies to maximize middle distillate production. While some refiners choose to alter catalyst formulations or build new cracking units to increase diesel yields, optimizing the separation between gas ...


SCANfining™ technology and services

SCANfining™ technology offers a cost-effective solution for meeting the low sulfur requirements of gasoline. The technology removes sulfur with minimum octane loss by utilizing a jointly developed ExxonMobil / Albemarle catalyst technology coupled with ExxonMobil’s hydroprocessing ...


Gasification – converting the bottom of the barrel into valuable products

Traditionally, crude-oil residues have been sold as marine bunker fuel or used on-site as furnace fuel. However, with changing legislation, refineries are under pressure to reduce both their emissions and the sulphur content of their products; in addition, the market for fuel oil is shrinking.   The ...


Tower field services

Cat Tech Tower Field Services offers bespoke mechanical services to oil refinery and petrochemical plants all around the world. Our team has vast experience in overseeing and undertaking the installation of all types of Tower internals. Our Tower tray, packing and other internals installation ...


MECS® Sulfox™ process

The SULFOX™ process is based on the thermal and catalytic conversion of sulphur-bearing compounds into sulphuric acid. Depending on the feed gas conditions, customised plant types are offered. For low concentrations, the feed gas is preheated to the required catalyst inlet temperature ...


Hydrogen-starved unit struggles to make ULSD

This is a 36 bar (525 psig) unit that was converted to ulsd service. The first two cycles used Albemarle KF-757 and lasted 6 months compared to one year expected cycle life. They switched to Topsoe catalyst for the next cycle and saw no improvement. Two suppliers recommended replacing ...


KOC-15™- Flexible and effective way to lower afterburn in your FCC unit

KOC-15 additive is Albemarle’s most widely used platinum-based combustion promoter, and is commercially proven to provide many refiners with a reliable, low-cost and flexible solution to afterburn and excess carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. In the regenerator, the coke (carbon) on ...


FCC technical support, industry-leading service

Grace technical service engineers regularly visit refineries to review unit operating data, evaluate catalyst management and unit performance, as well as provide specific recommendations to optimise unit operation. Grace can provide expert advice on operational problems concerned with ...