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Literature

Reactor Internals

State-of-the-art hardware to help optimize catalyst utilization, maximize cycle length and increase process safety. The performance of hydroprocessing reactors is determined not only by the catalyst loaded but also by the design of their internals. Shell Global Solutions’ internals ...


ASCENT™ DC-2534: performance that delivers greater value for your investment

Refiners who are planning to replace their ULSD catalysts have important decisions to make. The factors they must consider include catalyst performance, hydrogen consumption and catalyst regeneration/reuse options, all of which will have a direct bearing on their costs and the economic ...


Minimize recycle and coke carryover with the coker main fractionator washspray header design

Coker Main Fractionator flash zone design is critical to reliable operation of the column and maintaining product quality. This section commonly experiences problems related to the presence of unstable heavy liquid and carryover of solids. Successful operation often hinges on the design ...


Linde HiQ enhanced shelf life with HiQ 60 specialty gases

Specialty gases supplied with a HiQ 60 label will have flat line stability for 60 months from manufactured date. Linde will replace any HiQ 60 product free of charge if found to be outside the stated certified tolerance variance at time of use, and is within the stated shelf life peri ...


Proserpack™ combined exchanger - separator

Proserpack compact integrated heat exchanger – separator, simplifies NGL recovery by implementing 3 process steps (2 heat exchangers and the turbo-expander suction drum) in a single equipment item. The heat exchanger is a PACKINOX multi-fluid plate exchanger.


Why do many crude/vacuum units perform poorly?

In many cases it’s because the original design was based more on virtual than actual reality. There is no question: computer simulations have a key role to play but it’s equally true that process design needs to be based on what works in the field and not on the ideals of the ...


Opportunity knocks

A group of interesting articles* deals with opportunity crudes, a mixed breed that includes very heavy, sour and high total acid number types as well as those with unexceptional naphthenic acid content but which do have significant concentrations of aliphatic acids or possess the ability ...


Channel baffles: improving efficiency on trays with low vapor loading

Sour water strippers, wastewater benzene strippers, or any other column that operates with low vapor rates often have active areas that are easily oversized for the actual operating vapor traffic. For optimum tray efficiency, good contacting of the liquid flowing across the tray deck with ...


Crude oil contaminants: chlorine and the desalting process

Crude oil contains many contaminants which present challenges to refiners. Some contaminants occur naturally in the crude oil and others are accumulated in the upstream process. The primary means to remove these contaminants is the desalting process. In the desalting process, water ...


Gain 5-10% efficiency with this simple 4-pass tray revamp

The design of 4-pass trays can be complex. It not only requires a close evaluation of the mechanical design but also the process response to that design at various flow rates. The balancing of the fluid flows across the tray can have a substantial effect on the tray performance, namely ...


Why produce diesel from the vacuum unit?

Look ahead five years. The economy is likely to keep tightening and the rush to control pollution will inevitably be accompanied by demands for greater energy conservation. Consequence? A growing market for diesel which yields more energy per unit volume. Yet many continue to believe that ...


SENTRY Guard Portfolio

Protect your catalyst. Protect your bottom line. Opportunity feed sources have extended the range of poisons that hydroprocessing unit operators must face. Many of the contaminants can cause severe catalyst poisoning, even at very low concentrations. Catalyst contamination negatively impacts ...


Fractional crystallization

Crystallization is one of the most powerful purification methods available in process engineering. Fractional crystallization is a stagewise separation technique that relies upon liquid-solid phase transition and enables multicomponent mixtures to be split into narrow fractions, ultimately ...


Cyanide corrosion causes costly upsets

Refinery cyanides cause considerable corrosion, hydrogen blistering and waste water treatment problems. The majority of refinery cyanides are formed in the reactor of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) units. All of the gas from the reactor, including the cyanide, is carried overhead into ...


Callidus low NOx staged gas burner (CSGL)

The UOP Callidus (CSGL) is rapidly becoming the preferred staged gas low NOx process burner. An innovative design has been employed which increases the burner’s stability and allows for optimal performance on typical refinery fuel gases and 100% natural gas.The new design also increases ...


STRATCO® XP2 technology for the STRATCO® CONTACTOR™ reactor

The STRATCO® XP2 technology is a Contactor™ reactor enhancement developed to improve the acid/hydrocarbon emulsion flow path near the tube bundle end of the Contactor. In the current design, emulsion flow leaves the annulus between the Contactor™ shell wall and circulation ...


Sulfur recovery - SUPERCLAUS® / caustic scrubber process

Applications: Selection of an appropriate and cost effective Tail Gas Treatment process to follow existing Claus plants is a challenge facing refiners and natural gas plant owners around the world. New emission regulations, interest in increasing sulfur recovery and processing of higher ...


Linde HiQ 60 specialty gases

With calibration gas mixtures, the most important requirement is for an accurate reported value of the relevant component at time of use. Products with a limited shelf life can have significant impact with both accuracy and long term usability, and often result in additional cylinder change ...


About Axens

Axens is an international provider of process licensing technologies, catalysts, adsorbents and services, with a global reputation for basic engineering design excellence. The main scope of Axens' business is focused on the conversion of oil, coal, natural gas and biomass to clean fuels ...


HOERBIGER - your partner for refinery and petrochemical applications

Leading expertise for constantly changing requirements. Refineries, petrochemical and chemical plants use compressors to pressurize gas at high temperatures for a number of chemical reactions. In these industries, the largest and highest performing reciprocating compressors are used in ...


Sulzer technologies for biofuel applications

In recent years, there have been many advancements in the development of biofuels for the global transportation markets. First generation fuel ethanol plants performed fermentation of grains into high purity ethanol. Further R&D led to the development of biofuels from renewable feed ...


Sindie on-the-go

Plug-It-In & Measure. Results with One Touch.Unrivaled Precision. The Sindie OTG is a portable sulfur analyzer and provides reliable quality results from ULSD and gasoline to marine fuels and crudes. The analyzer is suitable for operating in-the-field, on-board marine environments ...


Sulfur recovery - EUROCLAUS® process

Applications: The EUROCLAUS® process recovers elemental sulfur from H2S-containing gases originating from gas treating and sour water stripper plants. The EUROCLAUS® process is an improvement of the SUPERCLAUS® process. Yields from 99.3 up to 99.5% overall sulfur recovery, ...


Burckhardt plate valve™

The long running valve best in O2 applications. Why the plate valve? The Burckhardt Plate Valve™ is of proven design, which has been continually optimized over the years. Special care has been given to improve the robustness and longevity of the valve plate, damper plate and the ...


GT-Styrene® a cost-effective process for recovering styrene

In an effort to improve the production economics of naphtha cracking plants, operators must consider the recovery of valuable components from pyrolysis gasoline (pygas) over blending into the gasoline. Styrene is one such component that has far more value as a petrochemical product than ...


CATnapTM catalyst passivation process - an alternative to inert entry

Cat Tech is pleased to present the CATnap® Catalyst Passivation Process - an exclusive, patented technique for unloading catalysts from petroleum processing units. CATnap technology passivates pyrophoric or self-heating catalysts by the application of a proprietary CATnap catalyst ...


Safe flash point testing of refined products, oils and chemicals

Flashpoint testing is required in a number of industries to ensure conformance with regulatory requirements. It is used to assess, how much care has to be taken in handling, transporting and storing chemicals or solvents, e.g. Diesel, Jet Fuels, Biofuels, Asphalt, Waste Water, Lube Oils, ...


Linde HiQ nitrogen

HiQ Nitrogen is high purity gas for laboratories and process control instrumentation. Nitrogen is widely used as GC carrier gas, purge gas for FTIR and nebuliser gas for liquid chromatography.


Isomerisation - High octane C5/C6 cuts via isomerisation processes

Meet market demands with high octane isomerisation processes. From once-through to advanced recycle isomerization processes, we offer the complete line of isomerization solutions that, by increasing C5/C6 naphtha cut octane numbers up to 92, go far to meet tighter gasoline pool specifications. ...


STRATCO® alkylation technology - high performance temperature control solutions

The DuPont/Aggreko alliance delivers unique and comprehensive temperature control solutions. In the sulfuric acid alkylation unit, the number one challenge is temperature control. The combined “know how” and global network of sales, engineering and technical support staff at ...


Multi-stage reaction catalysts (MSRC)

BASF has introduced its latest FCC catalyst manufacturing innovation, the MSRC platform. This breakthrough manufacturing development takes advantage of staged reactions with different catalytic attributes much the same way that staged hydrotreating catalyst loading permits different reaction ...


Purge gas recovery

High-quality, customised solutions for the recovery of valuable gases from ammonia synthesis purge streams. Faced with strong competitive pressures, operators of ammonia synthesis plants are often keen to increase cost efficiency. The recovery of valuable gases from the purge gas stream ...


Refining catalysts – market-leading, high performance hydroprocessing solutions

Increasingly stringent fuel and environmental regulations, heavier crudes and feedstocks, and soaring energy demand have created complex, and sometimes conflicting, challenges for refiners operating hydroprocessing units. In response, many refiners are building new licensed units or revamping ...


FCC additive technologies

BASF offers a complete range of FCC additives to meet refiners’ environmental and performance requirements. In response to increasing concerns about the environment and the global drive for ever-tightening emissions regulations, BASF has developed, and continuously refines, an innovative ...


Bicine can be controlled

Bicine is a very corrosive degradation product produced in certain DEA and MDEA systems. Amine system operators must take steps to minimize O2 and SO2 incursion into the amine system and will need to monitor Heat Stable Salts and Amino Acids (Bicine) concentrations in the amine.


Phoebe - phosphorus determination in hydrocarbon and aqueous matrices

From crude oil to bio-fuels, in additives or water, the Phoebe Benchtop Analyzer delivers unprecedented precision and accuracy for quantification of phosphorus. Based on XOS’s MWD XRF analytical platform, (as is found in Sindie and Clora Analyzers) Phoebe offers a LOD of 0.4 ppm ...


Dynawave® reverse jet scrubber

How a reverse jet wet gas scrubber works. The DynaWave® Reverse Jet Scrubber is an open duct in which scrubbing liquid is injected, through a non-restrictive reverse jet nozzle, counter current to the dirty inlet gas. Liquid collides with down-coming gas to create the “Froth ...


Shell sulphur technology platform

Consultancy and technologies to help take control of the sulphur paradox. The reduced availability of light and sweet crudes, and the consequential increase in the cost of such feedstocks, makes it more and more attractive for refiners to take in heavier and sourer feeds. However, there ...


Sulfur recovery - claus process

Applications: The Claus process has been developed to recover elemental sulfur from H2S containing gases originating from gas treating plants such as alkanolamine units or physical solvent plants. Modern Claus plants should be able to process H2S/NH3 containing gases as well, originating ...


Monitoring chlorine to prevent refinery corrosion

Chlorine in crude oil, if not removed, can hydrolyze during processing to form hydrochloric acid. The crude oil desalter is the first line of defense in the prevention of corrosion. However, in order to provide a proper defense, the correct chloride monitoring must be put in place. Unfortunately, ...