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  • 4 simple ways to convert turnarounds into profitable tower upgrade opportunities

    With planned outages commonly occurring at intervals of 2-5 years, a refinery turnaround is a prime opportunity to replace column and separator internals with the newest available technology. Planning for an outage with a “replacement-in-kind” strategy will address lost performance from refinery equipment due to normal wear and tear. However, most column internals can be upgraded for higher capacity, more flexibility, or greater efficiency at close to the same cost ...

  • About Axens

    Axens is a group providing a complete range of solutions for the conversion of oil and biomass to cleaner fuels, the production and purification of major petrochemical intermediates as well as all of natural gas' treatment and conversion options. The offer includes technologies, equipment, furnaces, modular units, catalysts, adsorbents and related services. Axens is ideally positioned to cover the entire value chain, from feasibility study to unit start-up and follow-up throughout ...

  • Amine headaches a pain

    MPR Services understands that amine engineers face a never ending group of challenges in ensuring their systems perform as designed. Since 1989, MPR Services has been working with amine engineers in addressing these challenges through our scientifically, developed technologies. In 1990, MPR’s patented HSSX® Process was introduced to remove heat stable salts from amines. Since then, MPR has developed new technologies, improved existing technologies and acquired additional ...

  • Anti-fouling trays maximize coker main fractionator profitability

    The Coker Main Fractionator is systematically subjected to harsh operating conditions that can lead to deteriorating efficiency and performance due to coking and fouling. Poor reliability results in loss of profitable coking margins for the refinery. The main fractionator vapor feed from the coke drum overhead is characterized by a tendency for further cracking, as well as the presence of fine coke particles carried from the drums. The hottest zones of the column (bottom quench, ...

  • Avoid unnecessary costs by understanding process problems before taking action

    When a piece of process equipment starts experiencing problems and producing off-spec product, every engineer’s reaction is to make a change to “fix” the problem and get it back on-spec. yet, many plants lack adequate instrumentation to completely diagnose the cause of the poor performance. Without a more complete understanding of the root cause of the problem, “corrective action” could have little effect or make the problem worse. Gathering supplemental ...

  • Axens overview

    Axens is a group providing a complete range of solutions for the conversion of oil and biomass to cleaner fuels, the production and purification of major petrochemical intermediates as well as all of natural gas' treatment and conversion options. The offer includes technologies, equipment, furnaces, modular units, catalysts, adsorbents and related services. Axens is ideally positioned to cover the entire value chain, from feasibility study to unit start-up and follow-up ...

  • Bicine can be controlled

    Bicine is a very corrosive degradation product produced in certain DEA and MDEA systems. Amine system operators must take steps to minimize O2 and SO2 incursion into the amine system and will need to monitor Heat Stable Salts and Amino Acids (Bicine) concentrations in the amine.

  • Channel baffles: improving efficiency on trays with low vapor loading

    Sour water strippers, wastewater benzene strippers, or any other column that operates with low vapor rates often have active areas that are easily oversized for the actual operating vapor traffic. For optimum tray efficiency, good contacting of the liquid flowing across the tray deck with the vapor flowing up through the tray orifices is critical. Channel baffles are a very straight-forward design modification that improve vapor/liquid contact, increasing tray efficiency in low ...

  • Dynawave® reverse jet scrubber

    How a reverse jet wet gas scrubber works. The DynaWave® Reverse Jet Scrubber is an open duct in which scrubbing liquid is injected, through a non-restrictive reverse jet nozzle, counter current to the dirty inlet gas. Liquid collides with down-coming gas to create the “Froth Zone,” a region of extreme turbulence with a high rate of mass transfer. The clean, water saturated gas continues through the scrubber vessel to mist removal devices. the liquid reverses ...

  • Effective water removal creates extra capacity in your absorber-stripper

    Free or soluble water carrying over from the FCC or Coker Main Fractionator overhead systems can cause foaming problems and flooding in the Absorber-Stripper columns. Column designs that incorporate effective water removal can free-up capacity for valuable naphtha or LPG production. The Problem Even with bulk water removal in the overhead knockout drums or high pressure receivers, water carryover can go hand-in-hand with capacity creep. Higher charge rates can create superficial ...

  • FCC stripper - distribution studies

    A Tracerco Diagnostics™ Distribution study can be performed to identify catalyst and vapor distribution in the stripper. Uniform distribution of catalyst and steam in the stripper is critical to achieve high stripping efficiency (less carry-down of the hydrocarbon products from reactor to regenerator). A failure to effectively remove the hydrocarbon from the catalyst will result in a loss of product, loss of throughput, and lowered catalyst activity due to increased regenerator ...

  • Fractional crystallization

    Crystallization is one of the most powerful purification methods available in process engineering. Fractional crystallization is a stagewise separation technique that relies upon liquid-solid phase transition and enables multicomponent mixtures to be split into narrow fractions, ultimately leading to top purities of selected components, through the virtue of selectivity found in solid liquid equilibria. Fractional crystallization is most frequently encountered in the separation ...

  • Gain 5-10% efficiency with this simple 4-pass tray revamp

    The design of 4-pass trays can be complex. It not only requires a close evaluation of the mechanical design but also the process response to that design at various flow rates. The balancing of the fluid flows across the tray can have a substantial effect on the tray performance, namely efficiency. Many existing columns are operating with older 4-pass designs. While some of these are well designed, others could use some improvement. Since 4-pass trays always involve a fairly ...

  • Gas/Liquid separation technology

    Sulzer is a major player in the field of gas/liquid and liquid/liquid separation technology, offering a full range of innovative products and related services. Our commitment to development of technology, combined with application knowhow and consistent fabrication standards ensures that a well-engineered solution is available for most separation problems. Our expertise gained from hundreds of successful installations in a broad spectrum of applications ensures that the best ...

  • Green design practices: focus on efficiency

    Green design is more than recycling scrap materials or calculating carbon footprints. It minimizes negative environmental impact through skillful design and operating practices to produce efficient, better-functioning processes. Because green practices reduce resource requirements, in many cases, they can also improve the profitability of the entire process. One of the most effective ways to make a process greener is to focus on column efficiency. Distillation is an energy ...

  • GTC Technology - engineered to innovate

    GTC Technology is a global licensor of process technologies and mass transfer solutions offering innovative, custom solutions for the refining, chemical, petrochemical and gas processing industries. Refining, petrochemical and chemical companies around the world rely on our advanced technology to optimize production capacity and efficiency, reduce operating cost and minimize environmental impact. Our broad scope of continually evolving products and services has been proven ...

  • High performance packed tower solutions

    Engineered to Innovate: GTC Technology is a global licensor of process technologies and mass transfer solutions with the core mission of creating value for our clients. Refining, petrochemical and chemical companies around the world rely on our advanced technology to optimize production capacity and efficiency. We combine unparalleled technical expertise and innovative thinking to solve complex processing problems. GTC has earned a reputation of excellence by designing and delivering ...

  • High performance tray tower solutions

    Advanced distillation column design. Revamping distillation columns requires a solid process design background, particularly when conducting evaluations of existing equipment and data. GTC advises clients to understand where they are on the reflux to theoretical stage curve prior to setting the design strategy for a column. The lower the stage count, the higher the reflux rate required. However, the exact sensitivity will affect considerations in the revamp and design of your ...

  • Ideal stage or mass transfer...which model should be used?

    The design and optimization of separation processes is carried out using process simulators, which utilize various calculation approaches. Two techniques that are widely used for modeling distillation are the ideal stage model and the mass transfer model. Ideal Stage Models - The ideal stage model requires a minimum amount of data—only equilibrium relationships and enthalpy data for the heat balance. The assumptions of the ideal stage approach are: 1) that the vapor and ...

  • Important tray design features that improve column operating reliability

    How often does Maintenance personnel open a column during a shutdown and find tray panels fallen without any obvious damage? How about tray valves stuck in the bottoms pump suction? While the initial reaction may be to blame faulty installation where the hardware was not properly tightened, the answer often lies in the design of the tray. Reliable column designs need to produce on-spec products at the design capacity, while operating with energy usage at a minimum. For this to ...

  • Improve fouling resistance in your wastewater benzene stripper

    Benzene stripper columns, built so that refineries can meet the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), operate with several unique conditions – low vapor rates, high liquid loads, and a high tendency toward fouling make designing well-balanced, effective internals difficult. The Problem: Two Refinery Case Studies Sulzer was contacted by two separate refiners who noted a continued fouling problem and short run lengths on their wastewater strippers. ...

  • Improve separation in your column by increasing the number of trays

    Refiners often face revamp challenges when trying to improve separation within an existing column. Improving diesel recovery from gas oil, splitting benzene precursors from naphtha reformer charge, or simply minimizing product overlaps after capacity creep can all be difficult when limited by a fi xed existing tower height. For these cases, revamp solutions that increase the number of theoretical stages by adding trays to an existing column or a section of a column pay large dividends. ...

  • Improved technology for carbon capture & storage saves capital cost

    Total man-made carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the world today amount to approximately 30 Gigatons per year, with fossil fuel-based power stations contributing in excess of 30% of this total. Carbon Capture is an energy intensive process, buy Sulzer’s specialized technology allows the operator to minimize capital expenditures and at the same time, minimize power output losses that can result from poor designs. High Efficiency Mass Transfer Products Reduce Capital Costs ...

  • Increase capacity in your column with a tray design revamp

    When trying to increase column capacity beyond design rates, an operator may notice loss in separation efficiency or high pressure drop, indicative of either vapor phase or liquid phase hydraulic limitations. An optimized tray design can eliminate hydraulic constraints to provide better column capacity and performance. Common Vapor Constraints to Raising Throughput In systems limited by higher vapor rates (typically lower pressure systems), jet flooding may constrain the column. ...

  • INTALOX® ULTRA Random Packing

    INTALOX® ULTRA high performance random packing can help to increase the capacity of any random packing tower by up to 10% while maintaining the same efficiency compared to previous high capacity random packings, such as IMTP random packing. With older generation random packings, the benefits may be greater. The low pressure drop and high capacity of this packing: * Allows smaller diameter for new columns * Reduces energy consumption * Reduces foam generation * ...

  • Maximizing diesel recovery in your columns

    Increased demand for automotive diesel is challenging refiners to adjust operating strategies to maximize middle distillate production. While some refiners choose to alter catalyst formulations or build new cracking units to increase diesel yields, optimizing the separation between gas oil and distillate in existing columns can be an excellent opportunity with little or no investment. Areas of Opportunity to Optimize Diesel Cuts Diesel streams are drawn from the primary fractionators ...

  • Maximizing light cycle oil recovery in the FCC main fractionator

    Refiners operating FCCU's have adjusted their operating strategies to maximize light cycle oil production to meet the increased demand for automotive diesel. Catalyst formulations and reactor conditions can alter yields, but the refinery cannot take full advantage of the increased LCO recovery without an optimized Main Fractionator operation and design. Sulzer offers several methods of optimizing the separation between light cycle oil and less valuable HCO or slurry with little ...

  • Minimize recycle and coke carryover with the coker main fractionator washspray header design

    Coker Main Fractionator flash zone design is critical to reliable operation of the column and maintaining product quality. This section commonly experiences problems related to the presence of unstable heavy liquid and carryover of solids. Successful operation often hinges on the design of the wash liquid distributor. Although Sulzer utilizes several styles of wash liquid distributors, this bulletin focuses on the spray header design. The spray distributor design is a careful ...

  • Mist Elimination Liquid-Liquid Coalescing

    Koch-Glitsch provides process expertise, commercial experience, and advanced product technology for a wide range of industries including chlor-alkali, gas transmission, general mist elimination, natural gas processing, petrochemicals, pollution control, power generation, pulp and paper, refining, gas processing, sulfuric acid and more.   Koch-Glitsch designs and manufactures a complete line of products including knitted wire mesh pads, fiberbeds, chevrons, and feed distribution ...

  • Moving gamma scanning forward – quantitative analysis of tray capacity

    Improving process operating margins can include maximising production of higher value products and/or minimising production costs. Process plants depend heavily on fractionation towers to produce products meeting customer specifications. Tower gamma scanning is well established in the process industries as a qualitative tool to help troubleshoot fractionation towers. Using new measurement detector technology and innovative analysis of gamma scanning data Tracerco is now able to ...

  • New design features enhance separation performance

    The Shell Schoepentoeter™ is a vane-type inlet device for feeding high momentum gas-liquid mixtures into separators or distillation columns. The Schoepentoeter has two main functions: separating the liquid from the vapor and evenly distributing the vapor in the gas compartment of the vessel. While Schoepentoeters have been recognized as the primary choice of radial inlet device in many separator vessels, performance in distillation columns has been challenged by proponents ...

  • On budget, on time, offine

    Flawless project execution will not prevent a unit shutdown due to selecting the wrong metallurgy for a challenging crude slate. No matter how well it is fabricated and installed, a shell and tube exchanger with cold, high viscosity vacuum resid on the tube side will have poor heat transfer performance. On-time shipping and installation of a too-small desalter will not prevent crude column overhead corrosion if the centerline velocity is overly optimistic for the design crude. A ...

  • Opportunity or Annoyance?

    Price differentials between conventional and opportunity crudes compel refiners to process increasing percentages of lower valued opportunity crude. However, as many refiners have learned the hard way, opportunity crudes are tied to unique processing challenges. Furthermore, existing crude unit configurations may limit high profit opportunity crude to a disappointingly small proportion of the total unit blend. Processing a changing slate of opportunity crudes of varying compositions ...

  • PackView™ - quantitative analysis of packing mal-distribution

    The last issue of Tracerco Insight (Vol 6 Ed 1) featured our patent pending FrothView™ technology illustrating how using Tracerco’s new measurement detector technology and analysis of gamma scan data provides quantitative information about the useful capacity of trayed towers. In this article you will learn how applying this technology to packed towers can determine the % liquid fraction providing a measure of the maximum useful capacity of the packing. Enhanced ...

  • Polymer production technology

    Sulzer Chemtech is the world‘s most renowned supplier of equipment and related solutions in the field of static mixing. The combination of engineering expertise and many years of application know-how enables Sulzer Chemtech to provide global solutions for improved polymer product quality. All Sulzer Chemtech products and services rely on a successful integration of three main competencies: • Static mixing know-how • Piloting & scale up • Process & ...

  • Process technology

    Sulzer Chemtech, a member of the Sulzer Corporation, with headquarters in Winterthur, Switzerland, is active in the field of process engineering, employing 3'000 persons worldwide. Sulzer Chemtech is represented in all important industrial countries setting standards in the fields of mass transfer and static mixing with its advanced and economical solutions. Sulzer Chemtech is organized into four business units, one of which is the Process Technology group. This business unit ...

  • ProTreat® mass transfer rate based simulation

    ProTreat - the only true mass and heat transfer rate-based simulator specifically for gas treating. ProTreat is the industry’s most advanced simulation tool for gas treating.  Because it is rigorously  mass-transfer  rate-based,  it  offers  the  ultimate in  accuracy,  reliability, and  truly predictive power. ProTreat offers  you unparalleled capabilities in design, plant optimization, and troubleshooting. A ProTreat ...

  • Removal of foaming

    In a recent case history, an East Coast Refinery was experiencing frequent upsets in their amine system due to foaming. MPR Services was contacted and brought in their SigmaPure™ System. SigmaPure removed the foaming agents and the unit returned to optimal operations. Operations management and Engineering were very pleased and the refinery gas treating system significantly increased performance completely eliminating upsets and reducing amine purchases.

  • Safeguard packed column efficiency with proper liquid distribution

    Initial liquid distribution directly affects the efficiency of structured and random packing beds. As such, some form of flow test should be conducted to validate distributor performance prior to column startup. Steady state water flow testing is the most common method of testing distributors. It can be conducted in the shop or in the field to verify the design, manufacture and installation. Three Common Types of Liquid Distributor Flow Tests • Liquid Range Test with ...

  • Separator technology reduces refinery operating costs and downtime

    A US refining company contacted us to discuss a separation problem in the feed to an alkylation process. Caustic entrainment from their selective hydrogenation unit was poisoning the hydrofluoric acid catalyst in the alkylation unit. The continuous phase feed to the alkylation unit consisted of ~180m3/hr of mixed C4 hydrocarbons, mainly butanes and butylenes, with varying levels of 10 – 20% caustic solution entrained as a dispersed aqueous phase. Sulzer was commissioned ...

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