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  • A single integrated vacuum system

    Failure to design the vacuum unit as an integrated system will invariably result in unsatisfactory yield and poor product quality (high vanadium, nickel, microcarbon, or asphaltenes), and ultimately, an unscheduled shutdown. To avoid these revamp problems the charge pump, fired heater, transfer line, column internals and ejector system must all be evaluated and designed as a unified whole so that critical variables – heater outlet temperature, coil steam injection rate, ...

  • About Axens

    Axens is a group providing a complete range of solutions for the conversion of oil and biomass to cleaner fuels, the production and purification of major petrochemical intermediates as well as all of natural gas' treatment and conversion options. The offer includes technologies, equipment, furnaces, modular units, catalysts, adsorbents and related services. Axens is ideally positioned to cover the entire value chain, from feasibility study to unit start-up and follow-up throughout ...

  • All about excellence in the energy and chemical industry

    KBC exists to help you achieve and sustain excellent operational performance, through the actions of our people, fused with the application of our digitalization technology and best practices, powered by the Cloud.Better decisions - faster, Flawless execution - every time and  Superior results - sustained. Deliver value: Performance assurance Organizations that perform at their best are able to adjust to changing dynamics without compromising competitiveness. KBC ...

  • Avoid fired heater coking

    For many refiners, heater coking in Crude and Vacuum Distillation Units (CDU/VDUs) is a common occurrence. Many units around the world are shut down every two years, every year, or even every six months to deal with chronic heater coking. However, with the right design features driven by a solid understanding of heater coking mechanisms, fired heater run length can be extended beyond five years, even with relatively challenging crudes. The two primary drivers of heater tube ...

  • Avoid unnecessary costs by understanding process problems before taking action

    When a piece of process equipment starts experiencing problems and producing off-spec product, every engineer’s reaction is to make a change to “fix” the problem and get it back on-spec. yet, many plants lack adequate instrumentation to completely diagnose the cause of the poor performance. Without a more complete understanding of the root cause of the problem, “corrective action” could have little effect or make the problem worse. Gathering supplemental ...

  • Axens engineering services revamping

    For a successful revamping project, no matter the degree of its complexity, and in accordance with your tight schedules, Axens is your unique contact during the phase preceding detailed engineering. Axens’ offer is based on our well founded expertise and several decades of experience. Our team of equipment specialists and our extensive network of detailed engineering contractors and equipment manufacturers complete this offer.   Our approach consists of successive ...

  • Axens hydrocracking

    Axens is an established name in hydrocracking licensing with more than 40 years’ experience in all types of hydrocracking processes. We have a large portfolio of hydroconversion processes, including fixed and ebullated-bed technologies. Our commercial units operate at low, medium and high conversion, and in once through, single-stage recycle and two-stage modes. Our commercial hydrocracker designs can cover a large variety of feedstocks varying from light HGO and LVGO ...

  • Axens overview

    Axens is a group providing a complete range of solutions for the conversion of oil and biomass to cleaner fuels, the production and purification of major petrochemical intermediates as well as all of natural gas' treatment and conversion options. The offer includes technologies, equipment, furnaces, modular units, catalysts, adsorbents and related services. Axens is ideally positioned to cover the entire value chain, from feasibility study to unit start-up and follow-up ...

  • Axens tech services

    Operating personnel are uncomfortable with changes affecting operations such as: process upsets, catalyst regeneration and replacement, changes in feedstock, modified product specifications, evolution of production goals and new operating staff. In coping with these changes, your resources - manpower, know-how and experience, are often strained. Axens’ Tech Service Agreements (TSAs) are attractive as they allow you to expand your qualified resources at regular intervals ...

  • Be smart about FCC olefin recovery

    Whether the driver is propylene as a chemicals feedstock or propylene and butylene as alky feed, FCC units worldwide are being pushed to maximize olefin production. Increased hydrotreating to meet Tier 3 gasoline requirements is reducing gasoline pool octane at a time of high premium-to-regular gasoline price differentials. Maximizing FCC olefi ns to produce high octane alkylate barrels is attractive – if they can be recovered in the FCC gas plant LPG stream. Higher reactor ...

  • Celebrating a century of innovation in the oil & gas industry

    UOP celebrates its 100th year in business in 2014, and in many ways our history is analogous to the development of the world’s oil and gas industry. We have accomplished many great things during the last century. For that, we owe a tremendous debt of gratitude to our customers, who helped us develop and commercialize our technologies. When our company was founded, there were fewer than 2 billion people in the world, and travel was dominated by horses and steam engines. ...

  • CeraLine™ elbows, pipe & spool linings

    Specifically designed for the harsh environments within mining, power generation and other heavy industrial processing industries, Blasch’s new CeraLine family of products exhibits exceptional wear and abrasion resistance which results in unparalleled life. Elbow diameters ranging from ½” up to several feet can be lined with Blasch pre-cast tight tolerance shapes available with engineered joints and smooth bore that eliminates premature wear and interrupted ...

  • Condensate is crude

    Ultra-light crudes and condensates are here to stay. These streams have flooded the market in recent years, and many of them are deeply discounted against reference crudes. Refiners have been processing increasing percentages of this light material through their Crude Distillation Units (CDUs) up against unit naphtha handling limits. On the surface, processing condensate and other ultra-light crudes with high API gravity and low sulfur should be easy. In reality, many refiners ...

  • Customized grading solutions for your feedstock

    Match your catalyst grading to your feedstock for minimum pressure drop build-up and maximum demetallization. As today’s opportunity crudes and heavier feedstocks become more economically viable, the oil fractions you refine are posing new challenges. Creating the optimal grading solution for your individual feedstock is essential to minimize pressure drop build-up, increase metals pick-up, and reduce downtime and catalyst replacement. An overlooked advantage The importance ...

  • Designing deepcut vacuum units that really work

    Every barrel of vacuum gas oil (VGO) you can save from being reduced to coke in the delayed coker unit is a barrel more that can go to the FCCU. That’s a good reason to raise HVGO cutpoint. But how to do it? Some people think the job can be done just by running computer models in the engineering office, relying on vendors and their data sheets for a clue to true equipment performance. Experience, however, shows it just ain't so. For either a grass roots project or a revamp, ...

  • Equipment design matters

    Many attractive projects fail to meet expectations at startup. Disappointing performance often results from bad simulation practices and/or poor equipment design rather than faulty execution. Refineries are currently considering FCC revamps to increase olefins for more alky unit feed, maximize LCO product recovery, and minimize slurry product by producing HCO for hydrocracker feed. These changes raise fractionator operating temperature. Higher temperatures require better process ...

  • FCC stripper - distribution studies

    A Tracerco Diagnostics™ Distribution study can be performed to identify catalyst and vapor distribution in the stripper. Uniform distribution of catalyst and steam in the stripper is critical to achieve high stripping efficiency (less carry-down of the hydrocarbon products from reactor to regenerator). A failure to effectively remove the hydrocarbon from the catalyst will result in a loss of product, loss of throughput, and lowered catalyst activity due to increased regenerator ...

  • Gain 5-10% efficiency with this simple 4-pass tray revamp

    The design of 4-pass trays can be complex. It not only requires a close evaluation of the mechanical design but also the process response to that design at various flow rates. The balancing of the fluid flows across the tray can have a substantial effect on the tray performance, namely efficiency. Many existing columns are operating with older 4-pass designs. While some of these are well designed, others could use some improvement. Since 4-pass trays always involve a fairly ...

  • Gas/Liquid separation technology

    Sulzer is a major player in the field of gas/liquid and liquid/liquid separation technology, offering a full range of innovative products and related services. Our commitment to development of technology, combined with application knowhow and consistent fabrication standards ensures that a well-engineered solution is available for most separation problems. Our expertise gained from hundreds of successful installations in a broad spectrum of applications ensures that the best ...

  • High performance packed tower solutions

    Engineered to Innovate: GTC Technology is a global licensor of process technologies and mass transfer solutions with the core mission of creating value for our clients. Refining, petrochemical and chemical companies around the world rely on our advanced technology to optimize production capacity and efficiency. We combine unparalleled technical expertise and innovative thinking to solve complex processing problems. GTC has earned a reputation of excellence by designing and delivering ...

  • High performance tray tower solutions

    Advanced distillation column design. Revamping distillation columns requires a solid process design background, particularly when conducting evaluations of existing equipment and data. GTC advises clients to understand where they are on the reflux to theoretical stage curve prior to setting the design strategy for a column. The lower the stage count, the higher the reflux rate required. However, the exact sensitivity will affect considerations in the revamp and design of your ...

  • Improve separation in your column by increasing the number of trays

    Refiners often face revamp challenges when trying to improve separation within an existing column. Improving diesel recovery from gas oil, splitting benzene precursors from naphtha reformer charge, or simply minimizing product overlaps after capacity creep can all be difficult when limited by a fi xed existing tower height. For these cases, revamp solutions that increase the number of theoretical stages by adding trays to an existing column or a section of a column pay large dividends. ...

  • Increase capacity in your column with a tray design revamp

    When trying to increase column capacity beyond design rates, an operator may notice loss in separation efficiency or high pressure drop, indicative of either vapor phase or liquid phase hydraulic limitations. An optimized tray design can eliminate hydraulic constraints to provide better column capacity and performance. Common Vapor Constraints to Raising Throughput In systems limited by higher vapor rates (typically lower pressure systems), jet flooding may constrain the column. ...

  • INTALOX® ULTRA Random Packing

    INTALOX® ULTRA high performance random packing can help to increase the capacity of any random packing tower by up to 10% while maintaining the same efficiency compared to previous high capacity random packings, such as IMTP random packing. With older generation random packings, the benefits may be greater. The low pressure drop and high capacity of this packing: * Allows smaller diameter for new columns * Reduces energy consumption * Reduces foam generation * Reduces pressure ...

  • Is pinch enough?

    Back in the late 1970’s and early 1980’s when fuel gas prices were high, energy utilization assumed major importance. A new method of calculating heat exchanger networks was developed. It was called Pinch Technology. Today pinch has been rediscovered by engineers who have access to fast computer simulation models. But as occurs with any older method that is rediscovered by a newer generation, enthusiasm generated by the rediscovery tends to obscure the deficiencies ...

  • Making the invisible visible

    In FCC Units (Fluidised Catalyst Cracking Units) the atmospheric residue from the distillation is cracked to LPG, naptha and other components. This sometimes leads to “invisible” deposits inside the Riser. This article features Tracerco’s ThruVision™ scans to illustrate how the technology helped the refinery to identify these deposits at an early stage. Bayernoil operates two FCC Units to convert heavy hydrocarbons. In the FCC Unit the feed is injected ...

  • Maximize reliability in grassroots crude units

    Crude unit operators are far too familiar with a long list of crude unit reliability problems including fouling in heat exchangers and fired heaters, poor desalting, corrosion of piping and equipment, and coking in the vacuum column wash zone. Many millions of dollars have been spent fighting these problems, yet they continue to force unplanned shutdowns with depressing regularity. Revamps must address reliability issues, but project scope is hindered by the limitations of existing ...

  • Maximize the value of your naphtha feedstocks and downstream processes

    New solutions for changing needs Lighten the burden of heavy feedstocks with Topsoe catalysts, process designs and technologies. If your refinery is like most, you’re under pressure to squeeze more value out of heavier feedstocks, and this presents new challenges for catalysts. To name just one example, increasing use of coker feedstocks has led to higher silica and nitrogen levels in the naphtha streams, requiring catalysts with superior HDN activity and greater surface ...

  • Maximizing diesel recovery in your columns

    Increased demand for automotive diesel is challenging refiners to adjust operating strategies to maximize middle distillate production. While some refiners choose to alter catalyst formulations or build new cracking units to increase diesel yields, optimizing the separation between gas oil and distillate in existing columns can be an excellent opportunity with little or no investment. Areas of Opportunity to Optimize Diesel Cuts Diesel streams are drawn from the primary fractionators ...

  • Modern crude distillation, modularized

    Global interest in modular refinery construction is surging. Small modular refineries are attractive to investors for several important reasons: SPEED: Project time from contract execution to start-up can be as short as 18-24 months. LOGISTICAL ADVANTAGES:Modular refineries can be built in remote locations to realize efficiencies in supply and transportation of raw crude and refined products. LOW INITIAL COST: Small relative size makes initial capital cost more manageable. Modules ...

  • Moving gamma scanning forward – quantitative analysis of tray capacity

    Improving process operating margins can include maximising production of higher value products and/or minimising production costs. Process plants depend heavily on fractionation towers to produce products meeting customer specifications. Tower gamma scanning is well established in the process industries as a qualitative tool to help troubleshoot fractionation towers. Using new measurement detector technology and innovative analysis of gamma scanning data Tracerco is now able to ...

  • Myth of the 1000°F vacuum unit cutpoint

    Canadian Synbit and Dilbit crudes will come to make-up a substantial fraction of feedstocks to North American refineries. Today, however, for the most part refiners both north and south of the 40° parallel seem to be unaware of the extreme challenges this change will present. To run an oil sands crude in a vacuum unit designed for conventional heavy feedstocks and to expect a 1000°F cutpoint for a 5-6 year run is like believing in the Tooth Fairy. Bitumen based crudes ...

  • Nasty stuff

    Heavy crudes are here to stay. As longs as oil prices remain high, Canadian, Venezuelan, Deep Water Gulf of Mexico, Mexican and other low API gravity crude oils will play an ever more important role in supplying world refineries. And prices promise to remain high because gainsayers notwithstanding, Hubbert was right. A big question is how to handle best these nasty crudes? Do you revamp existing units or invest in new capacity? With refineries now running flat out, the balance ...

  • Oil sands crude – profits and problems?

    Canadian bitumen production currently runs about 1 MMbpd, with some being sold as Synbit and Dilbit. Over the next 10-12 years output is expected to increase to 3.5 MMbpd and more refiners will begin investing to process it and come to depend on the Synbit and Dilbit for a significant part of their supply. Few today, however, have ever processed these feeds at high blend ratios, and are unaware that conventional process and equipment designs are not up to the job. Canadian oil ...

  • On budget, on time, offline

    Flawless project execution will not prevent a unit shutdown due to selecting the wrong metallurgy for a challenging crude slate. No matter how well it is fabricated and installed, a shell and tube exchanger with cold, high viscosity vacuum resid on the tube side will have poor heat transfer performance. On-time shipping and installation of a too-small desalter will not prevent crude column overhead corrosion if the centerline velocity is overly optimistic for the design crude. A ...

  • On-line heater and boiler chemical cleaning technology

    GTC’s fired heater cleaning solves common process feed heater problems. With rising pressure to reduce energy costs, GTC’s advanced fired heater/boiler chemical cleaning technology is an effective way to improve heater efficiency without shutting down plant operations. Our technology is designed to quickly remove deposits such as slag and other fouling materials that build up over time on tube fire side surfaces. Fouling in the convection section caused by condensed ...

  • Opportunity knocks

    A group of interesting articles* deals with opportunity crudes, a mixed breed that includes very heavy, sour and high total acid number types as well as those with unexceptional naphthenic acid content but which do have significant concentrations of aliphatic acids or possess the ability to generate them during processing. They all sell at substantial discounts that give refiners who can process them the opportunity to reap higher profits. Hence their name. Note that phrase ...

  • Optimise your alkylation process and take control with the Profiler™ TGA

    The Challenge. Alkylation processes present some of the more challenging applications for interface measurement and control in refinery operations. It is important for the operator to have confidence in the process to optimise alkylate production, while ensuring safe operation and environmental compliance. In a settler, not knowing the levels of hydrocarbon, emulsion and alkylate with confidence can cause problems, including increased polymer formation and combined fluorides, ...

  • PackView™ - quantitative analysis of packing mal-distribution

    The last issue of Tracerco Insight (Vol 6 Ed 1) featured our patent pending FrothView™ technology illustrating how using Tracerco’s new measurement detector technology and analysis of gamma scan data provides quantitative information about the useful capacity of trayed towers. In this article you will learn how applying this technology to packed towers can determine the % liquid fraction providing a measure of the maximum useful capacity of the packing. Enhanced ...

  • Processing heavy Canadian crude

    Reducing crude oil cost is the major incentive driving crude and vacuum unit projects to handle heavy Canadian crudes. But such crudes–Albian Heavy, Christina Lake, MacKay River and others derived from oil sands–today present refiners with a unique set of problems not just because of extra-low API gravity, but also because of asphaltenes, vanadium and nickel, high solids content and extremely high viscosity vacuum residues. To process such crudes reliably over a 4-5 ...

  • Understanding the financial impact of a collapsed flue gas tunnel in your SMR

    The overall influence of tunnels on the flue gas flow in a steam methane reformer has been modeled and documented, and the concept that running a reformer without tunnels can decrease overall efficiency is well understood in the industry. The study detailed in this webinar focuses on the effects of operating a reformer after removing just a single tunnel, leaving the rest in place. The resultant flue gas flow field is analyzed by looking at temperature profiles, residence time ...

  • From hydrogen production to sulphur recovery - let ceramics pave the way

    Learn how to boost the reliability and performance of your hydrogen production and sulphur recovery plants through the deployment of Blasch’s proven ceramic systems. Benefits include: • Higher plant reliability and much longer run-lengths • 60 -90% faster installation times • Capacity increase • Annual energy savings of several hundred thousand dollars for SRUs • Lower emissions   Flue gas tunnels in Steam Methane Reformers warp and fail causing non ...

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