You are currently viewing: Literature



Sulfur recovery - SUPERCLAUS® / caustic scrubber process

Applications: Selection of an appropriate and cost effective Tail Gas Treatment process to follow existing Claus plants is a challenge facing refiners and natural gas plant owners around the world. New emission regulations, interest in increasing sulfur recovery and processing of higher sulfur crudes are the main drivers.

The most common approach is to install an amine-based Tail Gas Treatment Unit (TGTU), however, lower investment costs and higher reliability can be achieved by combining two well established processes, Jacobs’ SUPERCLAUS® process and caustic scrubber wet gas technology.

By combining these technologies investment costs are reduced, the process is less expensive to operate and to maintain, requires a smaller footprint, greatly simplifies overall operation and has a greater on-stream reliability when compared to an amine based TGTU.

Description: By combining the SUPERCLAUS® and caustic scrubber technologies, the overall system can achieve greater than 99.9% sulfur removal at compelling capital and operating costs. Minimum 99.0% of the H2S is captured and recovered as elemental sulfur by the SUPERCLAUS® process and the remaining sulfur is scrubbed and converted to Na2SO4 by the caustic scrubber. The residual SO2 content in the fl ue gas is typically less than 50 ppmv.

The SUPERCLAUS® process consists of a thermal stage followed by minimum three catalytic reaction stages with sulfur removed between stages by condensers. The fi rst two or three reactors are filled with standard Claus catalyst while the final reactor is filled with selective oxidation catalyst. In the thermal stage, the acid gas is burned with a substoichiometric amount of controlled combustion air such that the tail gas leaving the last Claus reactor contains typically 0.8 to 1.0 vol.% of H2S. The selective oxidation catalyst in the final reactor oxidizes the H2S to sulfur at an efficiency of more than 85%. Depending on feed gas conditions and unit layout, a sulfur recovery up to 99.2% can be achieved.

The resulting SUPERCLAUS® tail gas is routed to an incinerator, in which all sulfur compounds are converted to SO2.

In the downstream caustic scrubber, scrubbing liquid is injected, counter current to the incinerator fl ue gas. Liquid collides with down fl owing gas to create a region with extreme turbulence, with a high rate of mass transfer. Quenching of the incinerator flue gas and SO2 removal from the gas occur in this region, there with creating sulfite salts. The clean, water saturated gas is then passed on to atmosphere through mist removal devices, reducing the SO2 content to < 50 ppmv.

The liquid reverses to the vessel sump for recycle back to the inlet. In the vessel sump, oxidation air is used to convert the sulfites to sulfates, that can be routed to waste water treatment.

Other Literature

Plant control - advanced burner control (plus)

Applications: The design intent is to have accurate SRU tail gas quality control in order to optimize sulfur recovery. ABC provides that. It is clearly superior over conventional SRU control and has always been Jacobs Comprimo®’s control system of choice for the EUROCLAUS®/SUPERCLAUS® ...


Sulfur recovery - claus process

Applications: The Claus process has been developed to recover elemental sulfur from H2S containing gases originating from gas treating plants such as alkanolamine units or physical solvent plants. Modern Claus plants should be able to process H2S/NH3 containing gases as well, originating from Sour Water ...


Sulfur recovery - EUROCLAUS® process

Applications: The EUROCLAUS® process recovers elemental sulfur from H2S-containing gases originating from gas treating and sour water stripper plants. The EUROCLAUS® process is an improvement of the SUPERCLAUS® process. Yields from 99.3 up to 99.5% overall sulfur recovery, without any further ...


Gas treating (refinery / natural gas) ADIP process

Applications: The ADIP process is a regenerative process developed to selectively reduce H2S in gas to very low concentrations in the presence of CO2. The ADIP process uses an aqueous solution of diisopropanol amine (DIPA) or the aqueous solution of methyldiethanol amine (MDEA). MDEA is used for those ...


Liquid hydrocarbon treating (LPG/PP/BB) - ADIP process

Applications: Besides its use as a regenerative process for the reduction of H2S to very low levels in gases, the ADIP process is also used to selectively reduce H2S and COS to very low levels in liquid hydrocarbons, such as propane-propylene (PP), butanebutene (BB), LPG and NGLs. The process is based ...


Claus tail gas treating - low temperature SCOT process

Applications: The Shell Claus Off -gas Treating (SCOT) process has been developed to remove sulfur compounds from Claus tail gas to comply with stringent air emissions regulations. The conventional SCOT process is able to easily meet less than 250 ppmv total sulfur in the SCOT off gas, which corresponds ...


Claus tail gas treating - SCOT process

Applications: The Shell Claus Off -gas Treating (SCOT) process has been developed to remove sulfur compounds from Claus tail gas to comply with stringent air emissions regulations. The standard SCOT process is able to easily meet less than 250 ppmv total sulfur in the SCOT off gas, which corresponds ...


Sulfur recovery - subdewpoint - SUPERCLAUS® process

Applications: The SubDewPoint (SDP)-SUPERCLAUS® combi-process is a convenient solution for existing SDP units to increase the overall sulfur recovery to at least 99.5% without any further tail gas clean up.

Description: The SDP-SUPERCLAUS® process adds the selective oxidation stage ...


Sulfur handling - Shell sulfur degassing process

Applications: The Shell Sulfur Degassing Process has been developed to remove H2S and H2Sx from liquid sulfur eliminating potential toxic and explosion hazards associated with handling, transport and storage of liquid sulfur. Elemental sulfur produced by the Claus process contains both physically dissolved ...


Sour water stripper

Applications: Many process units throughout a refinery generate significant quantities of sour water. Sour water collected within a refinery contains both H2S and NH3. These components are present as ammonium hydrosulfide (NH4HS) within the sour water. NH4HS is the salt of a weak base and a weak acid. ...