You are currently viewing: Literature



Residue upgrading using ebullated-bed hydrocracking

Dealing more effectively with the bottom of the barrel is high on the refining industry’s agenda for the following reasons. Crude oil feedstocks are becoming heavier, which is making lighter crudes more expensive. Environmental pressures are undermining the market for heavy fuel oil. In addition, the demand for clean transportation fuels is growing, with countries such as China and India taking the lead.

Ebullated-bed residue hydrocracking is a well-proven technology that creates value from even the most challenging residue feeds.  The process is offered by two licensors. There are currently 14-ebullated-bed residue hydrocracking units in operation around the world with a total capacity in excess of 0.6 MMbbl/d. In the next five years, several additional H-OilRC units will come on-stream and raise the total processing capacity to more than 0.8 MMbbl/d. Of the 14 units in operation, 9 use customised catalysts from Criterion Catalysts & Technologies.

Significantly, no two of the Criterion-supplied ebullated bed residue hydrocracking units are alike: feedstocks, product slates, the disposition of the products and the unconverted bottoms vary considerably. Customised catalysts are the key to successful operations. Criterion’s catalyst development programme consequently plays a huge role in optimising the performance of these units.

PROCESS CHALLENGES
Ebullated-bed residue hydrocracking units are favoured by operators seeking high conversion (up to 85% 524°C+) of very refractive vacuum residue feeds with high metal contents and Conradson carbon residue (CCR) values. The ability of the technology to process difficult feeds such as bitumen effectively at high conversion levels is largely due to the fact that catalyst can be replaced online during operation. Typically, a small percentage of the catalyst is replaced on a daily basis. Cost is obviously a major consideration on this basis, which means that catalyst stability is a very important parameter.

Unit operability is strongly affected by any sediment produced in the process. Sediment often causes severe fouling of the reactor and major downstream equipment such as separators, product filters, heaters, fractionators and heat exchangers. It can also affect the quality of any products that include unconverted bottom streams. For these reasons, sediment control is an important catalyst feature. In addition, the process may sometimes be constrained by the operating temperature, which calls for catalysts with high activity.

Other Literature

Catalysts for improved lubricating oil

Catalyst performance is paramount in producing high-value lubricants. Refiners trust catalysts from Criterion Catalysts & Technologies (Criterion) to deliver high yields of top-quality base oils. Consequently, our products are to be found in lubricant plants across the world.

Lubricant ...


Diesel dewaxing catalysts

Maximising middle distillate yields while maintaining excellent cold flow properties. In recent years, diesel dewaxing has emerged as a powerful
technique for meeting product specifications and creating additional margin.

To avoid wax compounds crystallising out and causing engine ...


Criterion Catalysts & Technologies focus on performance

Considerable resourcefulness is required to run a refinery profitably when faced with shifting product demand patterns, tighter specifications, rising energy costs, tougher environmental regulations and variable crude quality.

At the same time, the world order is changing. The economic ...


ASCENTâ„¢ DC-2534: performance that delivers greater value for your investment

Refiners who are planning to replace their ULSD catalysts have important decisions to make. The factors they must consider include catalyst performance, hydrogen consumption and catalyst regeneration/reuse options, all of which will have a direct bearing on their costs and the economic value of their ...


Transforming ULSD economics

The ability to produce diesel containing less than 10-ppm sulphur is no longer a differentiator in most  markets. Progressive refiners are pushing to make  ultra-low-sulphur diesel (ULSD) with improved fuel  properties from tougher feedstocks and often within  tight hydrogen budgets. ...


Residue upgrading using fixed-bed hydroconversion

Dealing more effectively with the bottom of the barrel is high on the refining industry’s agenda for a several reasons. Crude oil feedstocks are becoming heavier, which is making lighter crudes more expensive. Environmental pressures are undermining the market for heavy fuel oil. In addition, the ...


Residue upgrading using ebullated-bed hydrocracking

Dealing more effectively with the bottom of the barrel is high on the refining industry’s agenda for the following reasons. Crude oil feedstocks are becoming heavier, which is making lighter crudes more expensive. Environmental pressures are undermining the market for heavy fuel oil. In addition, ...


SENTRY Guard Portfolio

Protect your catalyst. Protect your bottom line. Opportunity feed sources have extended the range of poisons that hydroprocessing unit operators must face. Many of the contaminants can cause severe catalyst poisoning, even at very low concentrations. Catalyst contamination negatively impacts your return ...


FCC pretreatment catalysts

High-performance catalyst systems tailored to meet refiners’ operating objectives. Refiners worldwide are reporting significantly enhanced refinery economics after working with Criterion Catalysts & Technologies to optimise the performance of their fluidised catalytic cracking (FCC) pretreatment ...


Naphtha hydrotreating catalysts

Dealing with the more challenging streams. Criterion is a world-leading supplier of naphtha hydrotreating catalysts, the key to the effective removal of sulphur and nitrogen compounds from this valuable refinery stream. We supply about one-third by weight of all the naphtha hydrotreating catalyst purchased ...