• What is source of organic chlorides in crudes? why some crudes report organic chlorides while others not?



  • Doug Morgan, Searles Valley Minerals, morgan@svminerals.com

    I echo Ted Raab's comments.  Microbe respiration involves some surptising oxidation/reduction reactions. ClO4−(perchlorate) ⟶ ClO3− (chlorate)⟶ ClO2−  (chlorite) ⟶ Cl−(chloride) + O2 is actually quite popular with microbes that grow in highly saline environments.  I know biologists who are convinced that the high concentrations of perchlorate detected in Martian soil suggest life on Mars thrives in cold, yet still liquid, Perchlorate-saturated brines.  One should check to make sure he is not doing something to encourage microbes to do something undesirable on the surface.  Storing crude in carbon steel tanks on top of a layer of saltwater can lead to plugging of crude unit heat exchanger trains with iron oxide respirated from the tanks by microbes, for example.



  • Ted K. Raab, Carnegie Inst for Science, tkraab@stanford.edu

    Though the spectrum of compounds in current reservoirs is very different from the original source materials, it's worth noting that org-Cl is common in peats, lignites, and other energy materials. Many living organisms (fungi, plants, insects) synthesize them, and we must presume that they did in the past, as well. Bacteria can also respire (I.e. derive energy from) org-Cl. Reservoirs associated with salty horizons support microbial activity for long periods.



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