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Literature

Burckhardt Valve Service

Reduce operating costs of all your reciprocating compressors. For best compressor performance get a complete solution from the OEM. Burckhardt Compression has its own, leading valve technology since 1880. Experience has been gained for a wide field of applications. Valves are a key factor ...


Modern crude distillation, modularized

Global interest in modular refinery construction is surging. Small modular refineries are attractive to investors for several important reasons: SPEED: Project time from contract execution to start-up can be as short as 18-24 months. LOGISTICAL ADVANTAGES:Modular refineries can be built ...


STRATCO® alkylation technology

In January 2003, DuPont acquired the alkylation division of STRATCO, Inc., a leading alkylation technology licensing company servicing oil refineries throughout the world. Assets acquired include the STRATCO® brand name and technology, intellectual property, a global customer base, ...


Gas treating (refinery / natural gas) ADIP process

Applications: The ADIP process is a regenerative process developed to selectively reduce H2S in gas to very low concentrations in the presence of CO2. The ADIP process uses an aqueous solution of diisopropanol amine (DIPA) or the aqueous solution of methyldiethanol amine (MDEA). MDEA is ...


Modular air separation plants

Meeting today’s gas supply challenges in air separation. Companies considering investing in air separation units need to balance a number of factors. A reliable design offering minimal technical risk and maximum operational flexibility is essential to ensure process continuity and ...


Refinery weighs proposals for 10 ppm diesel

This refinery wanted to make 10 ppm diesel in blocked out commercial trials as preparation for upcoming diesel specifications. Some catalyst vendors said the refinery would need to double the reactor volume to make 10ppm. Other vendors said they had a new drop-in solution, a catalyst that ...


Tail-gas treating catalysts

Refineries and gas plants worldwide have reported lower operating costs, extended cycle lengths and reduced pressure drops as a result of installing Criterion’s state-of-the-art catalysts in their Claus tail-gas treating units. Well-operated Claus tail-gas units are increasingly ...


PROGNOST®-SenSim

Enhance safety proof testintervals (PTI). Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS) perform specified functions to achieve a safe state of process when dangerous conditions occur. It is their aim to mitigate consequential events. Safety loops of Safety Instrumented Systems consist of: - Sensors - ...


Recovering PGMs and other precious metals from spent hydrocarbon and chemical processing catalysts.

We’ll work together to maximize your returns, lower your costs, increase your profits, and assure your peace of mind. Sabin Metal refines spent catalysts pellets, beads, extrudates, and monolithic structures from hydrocarbon and chemical processing catalysts and from catalytic abatement ...


Customised air separation plants

The design, procurement, construction and operation of customised, multi-train air separation projects can present a number of challenges, particularly in remote locations. Having successfully engineered and executed most of the largest air separation complexes in the world, Linde Engineering ...


Meeting tier 3 requirements with precision and ease

Cutting Through the Noise. The Tier 3 rule, part of a comprehensive approach to reducing the impacts of motor vehicles on air quality and public health, was signed with the expectation of a 2017 implementation. The new regulations will ratchet the level down from 30 ppm to 10 ppm for sulfur. ...


MIDW™ technology and services

ExxonMobil’s MIDW™ process provides the highest yields of low cloud point diesel. The process uses a proprietary catalyst that converts waxy paraffins to higher performance molecules, as compared with older technologies that relied on cracking. This results in a much higher ...


Shut-off valves

Valves especially designed for the use in Claus-units / processes. Upon request: Special design for desulphurization of natural gas / gas conditioning. The proven design has been delivered to more than 150 reference plants worldwide. Numerous valves installed more than 30 years ago are ...


Fractional crystallization

Crystallization is one of the most powerful purification methods available in process engineering. Fractional crystallization is a stagewise separation technique that relies upon liquid-solid phase transition and enables multicomponent mixtures to be split into narrow fractions, ultimately ...


GXM3™ high capacity sulphur granulation unit

Sulphur granulation is a size enlargement process. Small sulphur seeds (undersized granules) are repeatedly coated with a liquid sulphur spray and cooled. With repeated application of liquid sulphur, the seed increases in volume and weight. As the granule is enlarged, each coating of liquid ...


MINISCAN IR VISION - top performer in portable fuel analysis

The MINISCAN IR VISION is a high speed, compact and robust FTIR fuel analyzer for the comprehensive and automatic measurement of gasoline, jet and diesel fuels. The analyzer is configured to measure more than 100 fuel parameters and components for fuel blending, for quality inspection ...


Axens catalysts and adsorbents

Decades of scientific achievement in catalyst and adsorbent research, product development, engineering expertise, process licensing technologies, manufacturing capability, and industrial feedback form the basis of the most advanced and reliable catalysts and adsorbents available anywhere ...


Residue upgrading using fixed-bed hydroconversion

Dealing more effectively with the bottom of the barrel is high on the refining industry’s agenda for a several reasons. Crude oil feedstocks are becoming heavier, which is making lighter crudes more expensive. Environmental pressures are undermining the market for heavy fuel oil. ...


Wet gas sulfuric acid - profitable sulfur management

The WSA technology is an excellent alternative to the Claus technology for sulfur management within oil refining, coal gasification, gas sweetening etc. High steam production, feed flexibility, ease of operation, and low CAPEX & OPEX are some key benefits for the operator when selecting ...


Experience the Sabin difference for precious metal catalyst recovery and refining

We turn science into art for highest possible returns and added value. The “science” of recovering and refining precious metal catalysts is straightforward: state of the art technology. The “art” of this process, however, is what makes Sabin different from all others: ...


MECS® sulfuric acid and environmental technologies

Is the leading provider of proprietary process technology, speciality products and technical services to the global sulfuric acid industry. MECS® has provided best-in-class sulfuric acid plant processes, clean technologies, and specialty products to a wide distribution of industries ...


BELCO® clean air technologies

Belco Technologies Corporation (BELCO®), part of DuPont’s Clean Technologies portfolio, is an industry leader in the supply of air pollution control systems to the oil refining, sulfur recovery, sulfuric acid, utility, chemical, pulp & paper, marine and other industries. ...


DeltaValve coke drum bottom unheading valve

Redesigned with smaller body and bonnet components, the new bottom unheading valve is lighter than earlier versions, maintaining its reputation as the smallest and lightest fully automated bottom unheading valve in the industry. The small footprint of this bottom unheading valve makes ...


Sub-ppm chloride monitoring of hydrocarbons

Corrosion at petroleum refineries is a critical problem all over the world. In the United States alone, NACE International, a professional association dedicated to reducing the economic impact of corrosion, has shown that $3.7 billion in direct costs are realized annually from maintenance, ...


Isomalk-3 - A robust n-C4 isomerization processs

A Robust n-C4 Isomerization Process. Isomalk-3 is a low-temperature isomerization technology for processing n-butane into isobutane, its branched isomer. Isobutane is an important intermediate required for the production of isobutylene or alkylate. Isobutylene can be used to produce MTBE ...


Maximize reliability in grassroots crude units

Crude unit operators are far too familiar with a long list of crude unit reliability problems including fouling in heat exchangers and fired heaters, poor desalting, corrosion of piping and equipment, and coking in the vacuum column wash zone. Many millions of dollars have been spent fighting ...


Arofining™ - Aromatics purification via selective hydrogenation

An important source of aromatics for petrochemical end-uses originates from high severity, continuous catalyst regeneration (CCR) reformers. The current trend towards high severity operation results in higher concentrations of unwanted unsaturated hydrocarbons (diolefins, olefins, styrenes) ...


Avoid unnecessary costs by understanding process problems before taking action

When a piece of process equipment starts experiencing problems and producing off-spec product, every engineer’s reaction is to make a change to “fix” the problem and get it back on-spec. yet, many plants lack adequate instrumentation to completely diagnose the cause of ...


Understanding amine system terminology

As we work with valued customers in our business, we have come to realize that there is confusion with some of the terms used to describe amine systems. Some of these terms such as Heat Stable Salts, Heat Stable Amine Salts, Lean Loading, Bound Amine, etc may need clarification. We explain ...


Dupont company introduction

DuPont has been bringing world-class science and engineering to the global marketplace in the form of innovative products, materials, and services since 1802. The company believes that by collaborating with customers, governments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and thought leaders, ...


Shell sulphur technology platform

Consultancy and technologies to help take control of the sulphur paradox. The reduced availability of light and sweet crudes, and the consequential increase in the cost of such feedstocks, makes it more and more attractive for refiners to take in heavier and sourer feeds. However, there ...


Mixing valve for hot gases

CHM valves are designed to mix hot gas of a furnace with cold gas down to a defined temperature. A refractory lining makes the valve suitable for applications where high temperatures may occur.


Baseload LNG production in Stavanger

One of our most recent references for LNG base-load production with an annual capacity of 300,000 tons of LNG is a plant built at the Norwegian west cost near the city of Starvanger, started-up for commercial production in 2010. Thanks to Linde’s proprietary, most energy-efficient ...


Tray designs for extreme fouling applications

Today refiners experience a lot of problems with processing of opportunity or heavy crudes. Such crudes have very high sulfur content and require the addition of amine scavengers before desalting. These amines decompose in the heater and create ammonium chlorides in the presence of water ...


Channel baffles: improving efficiency on trays with low vapor loading

Sour water strippers, wastewater benzene strippers, or any other column that operates with low vapor rates often have active areas that are easily oversized for the actual operating vapor traffic. For optimum tray efficiency, good contacting of the liquid flowing across the tray deck with ...


The StarLNG™ family

The StarLNG™ concept was originally developed for the typical small scale capacity range of 100 to 600 tonnes per day (tpd) and was based on Linde’s proprietary single mixed refrigerant liquefaction process LIMUM®1 using plate-fin heat exchangers (PFHE). During concept ...


ProMax®

ProMax is built on over 40 years of continual research and development efforts. Our team of development engineers has consistently found innovative ways to model processes so that the end results accurately refl ect the actual operating conditions of gas processing, refi ning and chemical ...


New design features enhance separation performance

The Shell Schoepentoeter™ is a vane-type inlet device for feeding high momentum gas-liquid mixtures into separators or distillation columns. The Schoepentoeter has two main functions: separating the liquid from the vapor and evenly distributing the vapor in the gas compartment of ...


Low sulfur additive

Low Sulfur Additive (LSA) targets gasoline volume expansion while reducing sulfur compounds in gasoline without octane loss. The reduction of sulfur in FCC gasoline is a requirement in low sulfur gasoline markets because 90 percent of gasoline sulfur is derived from FCC gasoline. The combination ...


Synthesis, ammonia and methanol plants

Linde as a leading supplier of syngas technology designs, supplies and constructs entire synthesis gas plants for the production of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and mixtures of these gases as well as ammonia and methanol plants.Processes: Providing the whole range of processes Linde can select ...