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Hydrogen as a renewable fuel

Governments and businesses are increasingly committed to steep decarbonization targets, establishing hydrogen as a key component in the energy transition. As of this writing, McKinsey reports that 64 countries, representing 89% of global CO2 emissions, have made net-zero pledges, while financial institutions and private sector enterprises also continue to increase their decarbonization aspirations. Going forward, the energy mix is projected to shift toward clean electricity, complemented by hydrogen and synthetic fuels.

Although the most abundant element, hydrogen primarily exists bonded to other elements on Earth. Separating and obtaining pure hydrogen requires an input of energy, and current methods include using water and electricity via electrolysis or from methane through steam reforming.

Once separated, hydrogen can either be burned directly in turbines or combine with oxygen in a fuel cell or battery to generate energy, producing water as the only byproduct. It can also be used as an energy carrier in the form of ammonia or methanol to enable safe and long-distance transport.

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