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Number: 251

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  • Understanding centrifugal compressor performance

    Apr-2002

    In a connected process system, expensive changes to the compressor and driver can be avoided with system debottlenecking modifications

  • Centrifugal compressor operations

    Jul-2004

    The wet gas compressor is used as an example in this article reviewing compressor performance, operating conditions and basic control philosophy

  • Improving the distillation energy network

    Oct-2013

    Energy-efficient design applied to the refit of a distillation unit was achieved through optimisation between the distillation column and heat network ...

  • Crude overhead system design considerations

    Jul-2007

    Proper crude unit overhead system design is important when building a new unit or revamping an existing one to process different crudes

  • Options for CO2 capture from SMR

    Oct-2014

    As CO2 capture from steam methane reforming becomes increasingly important, the economics of retrofit for recovery from process gas streams need to be ...

  • Cost estimating for turnarounds

    Jan-2012

    Cost estimates for refinery turnarounds can lack accuracy, but lessons learned 
from capital project estimating could improve matters

  • Enhancing heat transfer in Texas Towers

    Oct-2009

    Retrofit technology enhances heat recovery in feed-effluent exchangers, increases throughput, reduces furnace load and provides cost benefits

  • Diesel and VGO recovery

    Oct-2005

    Fundamental design considerations influencing diesel and vacuum gas oil (VGO) recovery when revamping existing or designing grassroots crude units. By ...

  • Managing vanadium from high metals crude oils

    Sep-2003

    Improvements in process and equipment design with regard to crude unit and delayed coker distillation column performance can reduce metals content

  • Why vacuum unit fired heaters coke

    Oct-2004

    A description of the internal workings of vacuum heaters and the causes of coke formation within them

  • Safe removal of polymeric deposits

    Jan-2015

    Damaging polymeric fouling of internals can be cleaned in situ by safe 
chemical treatments. Butadiene polymer formation is not an unusual problem ...

  • An atmospheric crude tower revamp

    Jul-2005

    Overall gas oil yield was maintained with heavier crudes due to a crude tower revamp. The revamp allowed for a crude heater outlet temperature reducti ...

  • FCC fundamentals: turnaround best practices

    Apr-2009

    Basic procedures and activities are presented for the unit engineer and other support personnel, designed to ensure a successful and safe 
FCC t ...

  • Entrainment issues in vacuum column flash zones

    Jan-2010

    For a vacuum tower to operate effectively, the flash zone and the wash section must work together to provide the best possible feed quality to the sections ...

  • Main fractionator water wash systems

    Sep-2006

    When properly designed and operated, main fractionator wash water systems can remove salt with little upset

  • FCC gas concentration unit 
stripper revamp

    Jul-2007

    Unit charge rate and reactor conversion were increased by the elimination of stripper column flooding. Chemical-grade propylene specifications were me ...

  • Reactor effluent air cooler safety 
through design

    Oct-2013

    Quality-controlled replacement of carbon steel with Duplex 2205 for revamps can increase the service life and reliability of the REAC in the high-pressure ...

  • Applying relief load calculation methods

    Apr-2008

    Case study compares dynamic simulation vs conventional unbalanced heat method for relief load calculations in a naphtha hydrotreater, focusing on the strengths ...

  • Bulk separation of gas-liquid mixtures

    Apr-2011

    Effective gas-liquid separation is increasingly important to produce high-quality products from feedstocks of decreasing quality

  • Using pinch technology in operations?

    Sep-2013

    Pinch Technology is a well established concept, and a tool used to optimise waste heat recovery and design efficient heat integration schemes in a wide ...

  • Stepwise simulation of vacuum transfer line hydraulics

    Oct-2009

    A stepwise hydraulic calculation determines the pressure profile of a vacuum transfer line by linking the hydraulic model to process simulation result ...

  • Foam control in crude units

    Oct-2004

    Installation of vortex tube clusters in crude unit preflash drums has eliminated foam carry-over, increasing diesel and atmospheric gasoil product yie ...

  • Planning for a turnaround

    Jan-2018

    Without the efforts of professional craft planners and logistics professionals, turnarounds will be a serious challenge

  • Identifying poor heat exchanger performance

    Sep-2007

    Identifying root causes of poor crude unit debutaniser reboiler performance and low-cost solutions that help meet exchanger original design conditions

  • Vacuum unit troubleshooting

    Sep-2003

    Case studies show how accurate field-measured differential pressure can be interpreted incorrectly when troubleshooting refinery vacuum columns