Number: 234


  • Understanding centrifugal compressor performance


    In a connected process system, expensive changes to the compressor and driver can be avoided with system debottlenecking modifications

  • Centrifugal compressor operations


    The wet gas compressor is used as an example in this article reviewing compressor performance, operating conditions and basic control philosophy

  • Improving the distillation energy network


    Energy-efficient design applied to the refit of a distillation unit was achieved through optimisation between the distillation column and heat network ...

  • Crude overhead system design considerations


    Proper crude unit overhead system design is important when building a new unit or revamping an existing one to process different crudes

  • Options for CO2 capture from SMR


    As CO2 capture from steam methane reforming becomes increasingly important, the economics of retrofit for recovery from process gas streams need to be ...

  • Cost estimating for turnarounds


    Cost estimates for refinery turnarounds can lack accuracy, but lessons learned 
from capital project estimating could improve matters

  • Enhancing heat transfer in Texas Towers


    Retrofit technology enhances heat recovery in feed-effluent exchangers, increases throughput, reduces furnace load and provides cost benefits

  • Diesel and VGO recovery


    Fundamental design considerations influencing diesel and vacuum gas oil (VGO) recovery when revamping existing or designing grassroots crude units. By ...

  • Why vacuum unit fired heaters coke


    A description of the internal workings of vacuum heaters and the causes of coke formation within them

  • Managing vanadium from high metals crude oils


    Improvements in process and equipment design with regard to crude unit and delayed coker distillation column performance can reduce metals content

  • An atmospheric crude tower revamp


    Overall gas oil yield was maintained with heavier crudes due to a crude tower revamp. The revamp allowed for a crude heater outlet temperature reducti ...

  • FCC fundamentals: turnaround best practices


    Basic procedures and activities are presented for the unit engineer and other support personnel, designed to ensure a successful and safe 
FCC t ...

  • Main fractionator water wash systems


    When properly designed and operated, main fractionator wash water systems can remove salt with little upset

  • Entrainment issues in vacuum column flash zones


    For a vacuum tower to operate effectively, the flash zone and the wash section must work together to provide the best possible feed quality to the sections ...

  • FCC gas concentration unit 
stripper revamp


    Unit charge rate and reactor conversion were increased by the elimination of stripper column flooding. Chemical-grade propylene specifications were me ...

  • Safe removal of polymeric deposits


    Damaging polymeric fouling of internals can be cleaned in situ by safe 
chemical treatments. Butadiene polymer formation is not an unusual problem ...

  • Reactor effluent air cooler safety 
through design


    Quality-controlled replacement of carbon steel with Duplex 2205 for revamps can increase the service life and reliability of the REAC in the high-pressure ...

  • Bulk separation of gas-liquid mixtures


    Effective gas-liquid separation is increasingly important to produce high-quality products from feedstocks of decreasing quality

  • Stepwise simulation of vacuum transfer line hydraulics


    A stepwise hydraulic calculation determines the pressure profile of a vacuum transfer line by linking the hydraulic model to process simulation result ...

  • Identifying poor heat exchanger performance


    Identifying root causes of poor crude unit debutaniser reboiler performance and low-cost solutions that help meet exchanger original design conditions

  • Foam control in crude units


    Installation of vortex tube clusters in crude unit preflash drums has eliminated foam carry-over, increasing diesel and atmospheric gasoil product yie ...

  • Increasing crude unit preheat


    Cost-effective exchanger network solutions need to rely on more than just pinch technology if they are to be successful

  • Applying relief load calculation methods


    Case study compares dynamic simulation vs conventional unbalanced heat method for relief load calculations in a naphtha hydrotreater, focusing on the strengths ...

  • Using pinch technology in operations?


    Pinch Technology is a well established concept, and a tool used to optimise waste heat recovery and design efficient heat integration schemes in a wide ...

  • Distributor design and testing


    A new main fractionator designed to separate a range of feed streams incorporates multiple layers of structured packing and a slurry section. Flow testing ...

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