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Literature

Cryogenic air separation

Design and construction of air separation plants is part of Linde’s traditional scope of activities, which led to the establishment of Linde’s Engineering Division at the turn of the 19th century. In 1902, the start-up of the world’s first air separation plant initiated ...


Important tray design features that improve column operating reliability

How often does Maintenance personnel open a column during a shutdown and find tray panels fallen without any obvious damage? How about tray valves stuck in the bottoms pump suction? While the initial reaction may be to blame faulty installation where the hardware was not properly tightened, ...


Hydrogen

The demand of hydrogen grew as the world´s consumption of refinery products increased by the ever growing industrialization. The demand for better and more abundant automotive fuels called for better yields from the limited feedstock crude oil. In turn the demand for hydrogen import ...


Opportunity knocks

A group of interesting articles* deals with opportunity crudes, a mixed breed that includes very heavy, sour and high total acid number types as well as those with unexceptional naphthenic acid content but which do have significant concentrations of aliphatic acids or possess the ability ...


Residue upgrading using ebullated-bed hydrocracking

Dealing more effectively with the bottom of the barrel is high on the refining industry’s agenda for the following reasons. Crude oil feedstocks are becoming heavier, which is making lighter crudes more expensive. Environmental pressures are undermining the market for heavy fuel ...


Technical service agreement for sulfuric acid alkylation

A strategic partnership to maximise alkylation unit performance. Maximizing the performance of your alkylation unit is a high priority, but challenging in today’s world with a changing workforce, increased workloads, and technology advances. DuPont can help you answer your challenges ...


Delivering world class hydrogen plant performance

The world that we live in today is constantly changing; 50 years from now it will be unrecognisable. We live during a period of significant population growth, with increasing urbanisation and increasing wealth. The population is not only increasing, it is also getting older, and it demands ...


Co-catalysts: maximizing profitability through product flexibility

As Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) product values change, the drive to maximize either gasoline or diesel from the FCC unit has resulted in dynamic market fluctuations. How does a refiner respond to these market variations to maximize the value of the products from the FCC unit? Co-Catalysts, ...


Liquid-liquid separation technology

In industrial process equipments liquid-liquid mixtures are produced by essentially two different mechanisms. a) Mixing of the phases in either purpose built equipment, mechanical mixers, static mixers where pressure energy is applied to increase the surface free energy of the fluids to ...


Redura® oil sealing systems

As compressor OEM (Original equipment manufacturer) with more than 170 years of experience, Burckhardt Compression has been setting standards for oil wiper packings for decades. Especially our know-how regarding the outstanding performance of oil sealing systems in our extremely reliable ...


Oil sands crude – profits and problems?

Canadian bitumen production currently runs about 1 MMbpd, with some being sold as Synbit and Dilbit. Over the next 10-12 years output is expected to increase to 3.5 MMbpd and more refiners will begin investing to process it and come to depend on the Synbit and Dilbit for a significant ...


Quantifying FCC catalyst accessibility

Accessibility is related to the mass-transfer characteristics of an FCC catalyst. Albemarle has developed a quantitative laboratory test that measures the accessibility of FCC catalyst particles: the first such measurement in the history of FCC. This test has dramatically altered the way ...


How to evaluate, select, and work with a precious metals refiner.

Precious metals are used in many processes and products for facilitating and/or speeding chemical reactions, pollution abatement, chemical/pharmaceutical production, electroplating, automotive catalytic reactors, jewelry, film, and hundreds more. Escalating values of most precious metals ...


Oxygen generation by vacuum pressure swing adsorption

Fast, cost-effective oxygen on demand. Demand for on-site oxygen generation solutions continues to rise across a number of industries. Vacuum Pressure Swing Adsorption (VPSA) technology is an increasingly popular way of meeting this demand. VPSA involves separating air into its constituent ...


Making the invisible visible

In FCC Units (Fluidised Catalyst Cracking Units) the atmospheric residue from the distillation is cracked to LPG, naptha and other components. This sometimes leads to “invisible” deposits inside the Riser. This article features Tracerco’s ThruVision™ scans to illustrate ...


CO₂ purification and liquefaction

Climate-friendly way to source CO₂. Climate mitigation in focus. Rising environmental and climate mitigation pressures mean that more and more companies are looking for flexible solutions to improve their carbon footprint. In particular, they are keen to meet the carbon dioxide (CO₂) ...


Advanced sulfur analysis with HDXRF

Petra is powered by High Definition X-Ray Fluorescence (HDXRF®) technology: an elemental analysis technique offering significantly enhanced detection performance over traditional XRF technology. This technique applies state-of-the-art monochromating and focusing optics, enabling dramatically ...


Refinery weighs proposals for 10 ppm diesel

This refinery wanted to make 10 ppm diesel in blocked out commercial trials as preparation for upcoming diesel specifications. Some catalyst vendors said the refinery would need to double the reactor volume to make 10ppm. Other vendors said they had a new drop-in solution, a catalyst that ...


ACHIEVE® FCC Catalysts

Grace is expanding its portfolio of catalysts to address the current market challenges, in particular to lower slurry yield to take advantage of distillate crack spreads as well as to address the trend towards increased residue and opportunity crude processing. Grace has developed new ...


DeltaValve retractable center feed injection device

The introduction of DeltaValve’s fully automated coke drum unheading valve in 2001 necessitated the development of side feed entry into the coke drum. No longer was it possible to feed resid into the coke drum through the bottom  ange as was standard with traditional manual ...


Rosemount™ X-well™ technology

Accurately measure process temperature without a thermowell or process penetration. CHALLENGE: Surface temperature measurement does not provide an accurate or repeatable representation of the internal process temperature. Conversely, while accurate, temperature measurement points using ...


Cutting-edge catalysts for ethylbenzene production

ExxonMobil zeolite catalysts: Producing the majority of the world's ethylbenzene. ExxonMobil’s zeolite catalysts are the heart of the Badger EBMax℠ process. Originally developed by Mobil Oil, the MCM-22 family of zeolite catalysts revolutionized the production of ethylbenzene (EB). With ...


STRATCO® alkylation technology

A full line global leader for alkylation technology and services. The STRATCO® Alkylation Technology is the world leader with over 90 units licensed with more than 800,000 BPSD (31,400 kmta) of installed capacity. DuPont is committed to alkylation research and is an expert in all aspects ...


AdvaSulf™ your sulphur technology

AdvaSulf™ is a global technological toolbox covering all SRU steps and options, and including (but not limited to) proprietary know-how and processes with an impressive track record of industrial experiences.


Get the best from your compressor

How’s your compressor running? How should it run? How could it run? The reliability, efficiency, and environmental soundness of compressors dictate the cost-effectiveness and dependability of entire plants. As a specialist in equipping reciprocating compressors with the latest performance-determining ...


STRATCO® Alkylation innovations for grassroots applications

A commitment to innovation research and development. DuPont recognizes that continued improvement of the STRATCO® alkylation technology is critical to our customers’ success. As such, DuPont has a dedicated team of scientists and engineers focused on alkylation R&D at the ...


Want to remove particles from your naphtha gas phase?

Topsoe’s gas phase scale catcher effectively removes particles from the process stream and prevents reduction of bed void fraction and pressure drop build up. Particles entering with the gas, are often preventing units from optimal performance. Topsoe has developed a gas phase scale ...


LRT FCC catalysts

Albemarle’s low rare earth technology (LRT) products. Driven by its goal to provide customers with comprehensive, economic catalyst solutions and the surge in global rare earth prices, Albemarle has developed and commercialized a range of LRT products. The catalysts available for ...


Improve fouling resistance in your wastewater benzene stripper

Benzene stripper columns, built so that refineries can meet the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), operate with several unique conditions – low vapor rates, high liquid loads, and a high tendency toward fouling make designing well-balanced, effective ...


Coil-wound heat exchangers

Coil-wound heat exchangers (CWHE) have been used in the industry since the early days, when Carl von Linde liquefied air on an industrial scale for the first time in May 1895. Until today, more than thousand coil-wound heat exchangers have been manufac-tured in Linde’s fabrication ...


High performance tray tower solutions

Advanced distillation column design. Revamping distillation columns requires a solid process design background, particularly when conducting evaluations of existing equipment and data. GTC advises clients to understand where they are on the reflux to theoretical stage curve prior to setting ...


Transforming ULSD economics

The ability to produce diesel containing less than 10-ppm sulphur is no longer a differentiator in most  markets. Progressive refiners are pushing to make  ultra-low-sulphur diesel (ULSD) with improved fuel  properties from tougher feedstocks and often within  tight ...


CE valve - the efficient ring valve

Many of the processes that have Significant importance for industrial plant operation can cause extreme stress on compressor valves, e.g. by the presence of particles, catalyst debris, liquids or polymerides. Particles carried along with the gas flow or polymers can lead to clogging of ...


Wet gas sulfuric acid - profitable sulfur management

The WSA technology is an excellent alternative to the Claus technology for sulfur management within oil refining, coal gasification, gas sweetening etc. High steam production, feed flexibility, ease of operation, and low CAPEX & OPEX are some key benefits for the operator when selecting ...


FCC catalysts

BASF Catalysts is a global industry leader in Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) catalysts with an unparalleled commitment to the delivery of cuttingedge technology and service to the refining industry. As part of BASF - The Chemical Company, BASF catalysts is leveraging its leading development ...


MECS®–Thermo Z™ welded plate heat exchangers

Plant engineers in the know choose MECS®–THERMO Z™ for maximum waste heat recovery and the best delivered value. MECS®–ThermoZ™ is a highly efficient heat exchanger suitable for many industrial processes where gas temperatures may be up to 1500°F (816°C). ...


Structured packings for distillation, absorption and reactive distillation

This brochure was reviewed and supplemented recently. It therefore provides a complete, up‑to‑date overview of packings available from Sulzer Chemtech. Also included is a summary covering the essential column internals and our technical services. More detailed product information, ...


Topsoe stream management

Ensuring optimal utilization of all hydroprocessing units, hydrogen and catalyst. Refiners often face bottlenecks and challenges at their different units. Many times, these are solved within the refinery itself, and only considering a single or maybe a few units. With Topsoe Stream Management ...


FCC pretreatment catalysts

High-performance catalyst systems tailored to meet refiners’ operating objectives. Refiners worldwide are reporting significantly enhanced refinery economics after working with Criterion Catalysts & Technologies to optimise the performance of their fluidised catalytic cracking ...


Thermal conversion – converting the bottom of the barrel into higher-value products

Faced with falling demand for low-value products such as residue fuel oil, operators are seeking proven, cost-effective technologies to help increase the value of their residue streams by revamping and debottlenecking existing units. Shell Global Solutions’ thermal conversion processes ...


Intelligently predict and prevent corrosion across your operations

Learn how the fight against corrosion never stops - it is a fact of life every day across Oil & Gas, Refining and Pipeline operations, what-if you could have insight into real-time corrosion rates in your process?  Honeywell Predict® Corrosion Suite provides the next ...


From hydrogen production to sulphur recovery - let ceramics pave the way

Learn how to boost the reliability and performance of your hydrogen production and sulphur recovery plants through the deployment of Blasch’s proven ceramic systems. Benefits include: • Higher plant reliability and much longer run-lengths • 60 -90% faster installation ...