Cost-effective SOx reduction solution for full-combustion FCC units. Reducing SOx emissions has become increasingly challenging in many parts of the world. Depending on the location, SOx emission limits are defined at the refinery level as bubble limits; at the individual emissions source; or, in some cases, by the concentrations in the atmosphere in the vicinity.

In light of these challenges, many refineries have successfully used SOx additives for reducing overall sulfur emissions. The United States Environmental Protection Agency supports their use, and they are documented as a best-available technique in the European Union’s Best-Available Technology Reference documents.

The strength of SOx additives lies in their inherent flexibility. Additives readily reduce SOx emissions without capital investment. Their usage rates can be increased to make it economically feasible to capture opportunities for processing higher-sulfur feedstocks that would otherwise be unviable owing to sulfur emission limit constraints.

The KDSOx advantage
Magnesium is the backbone of functional SOx reduction additives like KDSOx. Sulfur is captured in the FCC regenerator by the formation of magnesium sulfate on the surface of the additive particles. KDSOx has been commercially proven for over a decade to deliver costeffective

SOx reduction. Its key to success lies in Albemarle’s proprietary hydrotalcite technology, which forms the bulk of the additive mass. The chemical formulae illustrated in Figure 1 show that hydrotalcite has a higher magnesium/aluminum ratio than competitive spinel-based technologies. This translates directly into a greater adsorption advantage for KDSOx.

Data from competitors’ product data sheets indicate that their products contain only about half as much elemental magnesium as KDSOx, and therefore offer lower performance.


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