Avoid unnecessary costs by understanding process problems before taking action
When a piece of process equipment starts experiencing problems and producing off-spec product, every engineer’s reaction is to make a change to “fix” the problem and get it back on-spec. yet, many plants lack adequate instrumentation to completely diagnose the cause of the poor performance. Without a more complete understanding of the root cause of the problem, “corrective action” could have little effect or make the problem worse. Gathering supplemental data can sharpen the “image” of the problem and lead to the appropriate action being taken.
Case study 1 - high differential pressure in H2S absorber
An ammonia plant engineer found that the H2S Absorber in the unit was displaying a higher than normal differential pressure. The gas stream from the top of the column was still on spec, but the inlet pressure of the gas to the column was higher than normal and climbing. This was putting a strain on the compressor and increasing energy costs. As is typical on most columns, the only pressure sensors on the column were at the top and bottom. High differential pressure in a distillation column can be caused by several things. These can include fouling, damaged trays, instruments out of calibration, changes in feed composition or conditions, and unexpected contaminants. Being an experienced engineer, an analysis of the amine was ordered to ensure correct concentration and to look for contaminants. The instrument team checked the bottoms level instrument, the temperature probes, and the two pressure meters for proper calibration. The engineer asked the lab to check the calibration of the lab instruments used to perform compositional analysis of the gas feed to the column. All of these tests failed to identify a problem and gave the engineer confidence that there was a physical problem with the internals of the column.
It was suspected at this point that the column was either fouled or some internals had been damaged. However, the cost of the corrective action was highly dependent upon the actual cause. Damaged or fouled trays were both going to necessitate an unplanned shutdown, but the duration and costs associated would differ greatly. The engineer decided to perform a Tru-Scan™ on the absorber column.
A Tru-Scan™ is performed by positioning a source on one side of a column at the top tangent line and a sensitive detector on the opposite side at the same elevation as shown in the orientation drawing in Figure 1. The scan line through the column does not have to be across a full diameter, but can be across a chord. The chord length does need to be consistent from the top of the column to the bottom. The chord is chosen such that the scan line is across an active area of the trays, avoiding the downcomers. A purposeful scan along the downcomers can also be performed to gain additional operational information, but the tray active area scan is normally performed and analysed first.
The source and detector are synchronously lowered down the column incrementally. At each elevation, a reading is recorded of how much of the signal transmission passes through the column. In parts of the column where the average material density is low, such as just under the trays, most of the signal from the source passes through the column. Just above the trays, where the average density of the aerated liquid is highest, the liquid absorbs most of the signal. The Tru-Scan™ results are then provided in a plot of the measured signal counts versus elevation (Figure 2). This plot can be interpreted to indicate the state of operation on each tray in the column.
- Corrosion and Fouling Control
- Fired Heaters, Furnaces and Boilers
- Maintenance and Reliability
- Process Engineering
- Column, Reactor Internals, Screens and Packings
- Sulphur Removal and Recovery
- Process Chemicals
- Safety, Health, Environment and Quality (SHEQ)
- Measurement and Testing Devices
- Process Instrumentation
- Crude and Vacuum Units
- Revamps and Turnarounds
- Mass Transfer
- Heat Exchangers
- Instrumentation, Automation and Process Control
The Challenge. Alkylation processes present some of the more challenging applications for interface measurement and control in refinery operations. It is important for the operator to have confidence in the process to optimise alkylate production, while ensuring safe operation and environmental compliance. In ...
The Profiler™ TGA provides extremely reliable liquid level and interface measurements for alkylation units and other harsh service environments. The Profiler™ TGA is specifically designed to measure the vertical distribution of multiple interfaces in real time and at high resolution. Key features • ...
Bulk level measurement. Developed to comply with the latest functional safety standards, the SIL2 certified TracercoTM level system delivers extremely reliable bulk level measurements, regardless of process conditions. Its external modular design, with no moving parts, provides measurement redundancy, ...
Level, interface and multiphase measurement. The Profiler™ GPS provides a ‘window’ into the vessel to enable the operator to improve production throughput, reduce the number of unscheduled shutdowns and achieve significant cost savings. The Profiler™ GPS has no moving parts and is installed in ...
Bulk level and interface measurement. Optimus™ is designed for liquid level, interface and solids monitoring in upstream and downstream vessels. Optimus™ is suitable for bulk level measurement in the most challenging oil, chemical and petrochemical industry applications, including those with the ...
Bulk level and density measurement. Designed using innovative scintillator-based technology, Hyperion™ is a non-contact, no moving parts measurement solution that provides accurate and extremely reliable bulk level and density measurements. This enables operators in the oil, gas, petrochemical, refining, ...
A Tracerco Diagnostics™ Distribution study can be performed to identify catalyst and vapor distribution in the stripper. Uniform distribution of catalyst and steam in the stripper is critical to achieve high stripping efficiency (less carry-down of the hydrocarbon products from reactor to regenerator). ...
Tracerco has been at the forefront of the development of online leak detection for the last 40 years. The method allows the detection of leaks as small as 0.5%. However, customer demands to measure smaller leaks affecting product quality, has prompted extensive research to develop alternative online ...
Providing real time measurement technologies to assist with critical decision making. Tracerco Scanning Services TRU-SCAN® Application. Do you have problems with the operation of your stripper/absorber or fractionation tower? Is this limiting production? Do you want to reduce your operating costs? ...
The Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Unit (FCCU) is the economic heart of a modern refinery. Even small increases in its yield can bring about significant overall gains in productivity and revenue. Tracerco is a world leading industrial technology company providing unique and specialized detection, diagnostic ...