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  • A single integrated vacuum system

    Failure to design the vacuum unit as an integrated system will invariably result in unsatisfactory yield and poor product quality (high vanadium, nickel, microcarbon, or asphaltenes), and ultimately, an unscheduled shutdown. To avoid these revamp problems the charge pump, fired heater, transfer line, column internals and ejector system must all be evaluated and designed as a unified whole so that critical variables – heater outlet temperature, coil steam injection rate, ...

  • A time for grass roots thinking ?

    Within the past year or two spiking crude prices and surging refinery margins have led to overheated talk about increasing refinery capacity worldwide. Plans for construction of as many 60 grass roots refineries have been discussed. But stretched out lead times for major equipment and inflated prices, as well as declining margins and a final realization that there is not enough crude to meet demand, have brought sober thinking to the table. Recent societal changes in India and ...

  • About Axens

    Axens is a group providing a complete range of solutions for the conversion of oil and biomass to cleaner fuels, the production and purification of major petrochemical intermediates as well as all of natural gas' treatment and conversion options. The offer includes technologies, equipment, furnaces, modular units, catalysts, adsorbents and related services. Axens is ideally positioned to cover the entire value chain, from feasibility study to unit start-up and follow-up throughout ...

  • Avoid fired heater coking

    For many refiners, heater coking in Crude and Vacuum Distillation Units (CDU/VDUs) is a common occurrence. Many units around the world are shut down every two years, every year, or even every six months to deal with chronic heater coking. However, with the right design features driven by a solid understanding of heater coking mechanisms, fired heater run length can be extended beyond five years, even with relatively challenging crudes. The two primary drivers of heater tube ...

  • Avoid unnecessary costs by understanding process problems before taking action

    When a piece of process equipment starts experiencing problems and producing off-spec product, every engineer’s reaction is to make a change to “fix” the problem and get it back on-spec. yet, many plants lack adequate instrumentation to completely diagnose the cause of the poor performance. Without a more complete understanding of the root cause of the problem, “corrective action” could have little effect or make the problem worse. Gathering supplemental ...

  • Axens Connect’In™

    High speed data networks, cloud-based systems and advanced data techniques are leading a distinct change in the way industries monitor and optimize operating assets. Refineries that will adopt realtime unit monitoring tools incorporating on-demand, advanced modelling of process performance will see an immediate marketplace advantage. Axens’ Connect’In™ addresses these challenges and is leading the breakthrough to substantially improve the efficiency of refineries. ...

  • Axens engineering services revamping

    For a successful revamping project, no matter the degree of its complexity, and in accordance with your tight schedules, Axens is your unique contact during the phase preceding detailed engineering. Axens’ offer is based on our well founded expertise and several decades of experience. Our team of equipment specialists and our extensive network of detailed engineering contractors and equipment manufacturers complete this offer.   Our approach consists of successive ...

  • Axens hydrocracking

    Axens is an established name in hydrocracking licensing with more than 40 years’ experience in all types of hydrocracking processes. We have a large portfolio of hydroconversion processes, including fixed and ebullated-bed technologies. Our commercial units operate at low, medium and high conversion, and in once through, single-stage recycle and two-stage modes. Our commercial hydrocracker designs can cover a large variety of feedstocks varying from light HGO and LVGO ...

  • Axens overview

    Axens is a group providing a complete range of solutions for the conversion of oil and biomass to cleaner fuels, the production and purification of major petrochemical intermediates as well as all of natural gas' treatment and conversion options. The offer includes technologies, equipment, furnaces, modular units, catalysts, adsorbents and related services. Axens is ideally positioned to cover the entire value chain, from feasibility study to unit start-up and follow-up ...

  • Axens tech services

    Operating personnel are uncomfortable with changes affecting operations such as: process upsets, catalyst regeneration and replacement, changes in feedstock, modified product specifications, evolution of production goals and new operating staff. In coping with these changes, your resources - manpower, know-how and experience, are often strained. Axens’ Tech Service Agreements (TSAs) are attractive as they allow you to expand your qualified resources at regular intervals ...

  • Celebrating a century of innovation in the oil & gas industry

    UOP celebrates its 100th year in business in 2014, and in many ways our history is analogous to the development of the world’s oil and gas industry. We have accomplished many great things during the last century. For that, we owe a tremendous debt of gratitude to our customers, who helped us develop and commercialize our technologies. When our company was founded, there were fewer than 2 billion people in the world, and travel was dominated by horses and steam engines. ...

  • Comparing physical solvents for acid gas removal

    Physical solvents such as DEPG, NMP, Methanol, and Propylene Carbonate are often used to treat sour gas. These physical solvents differ from chemical solvents such as ethanolamines and hot potassium carbonate in a number of ways. The regeneration of chemical solvents is achieved by the application of heat whereas physical solvents can often be stripped of impurities by simply reducing the pressure. Physical solvents tend to be favored over chemical solvents when the concentration ...

  • Condensate is crude

    Ultra-light crudes and condensates are here to stay. These streams have flooded the market in recent years, and many of them are deeply discounted against reference crudes. Refiners have been processing increasing percentages of this light material through their Crude Distillation Units (CDUs) up against unit naphtha handling limits. On the surface, processing condensate and other ultra-light crudes with high API gravity and low sulfur should be easy. In reality, many refiners ...

  • COSWEET™ deep COS removal from natural gas

    By combining amine absorption with catalytic COS hydrolysis, COSWEET™ allows gas sweetening, either total (removal of both H₂S + CO₂) or selective (removal of H₂S mainly), with complete COS removal. The three steps of COSWEET™ process consists in: * Removing the bulk of the H₂S and CO₂ present in the feed gas by absorption in the bottom section of a solvent absorber. * Withdrawing the partially sweetened gas from bottom section of the absorber, water ...

  • Designing deepcut vacuum units that really work

    Every barrel of vacuum gas oil (VGO) you can save from being reduced to coke in the delayed coker unit is a barrel more that can go to the FCCU. That’s a good reason to raise HVGO cutpoint. But how to do it? Some people think the job can be done just by running computer models in the engineering office, relying on vendors and their data sheets for a clue to true equipment performance. Experience, however, shows it just ain't so. For either a grass roots project or a revamp, ...

  • Drizo™ the best available glycol dehydration process

    Drizo™ regenerates the glycol by solvent stripping instead of the conventional gas stripping. Solvent stripping allows to obtain much higher glycol purities than gas stripping (up to 99.998 wt% instead of the typical 99.95 wt%) and consequently allows to get much larger water dew point depressions: up to 100°C (180°F) and even higher in some cases. The solvent required by the Drizo™ process is usually obtained from the BTEX present in the natural gas itself ...

  • Electrostatic Coalescers: desalting and dehydration of crudes

    Electrostatic coalescers allow to remove small water droplets which would remain emulsified and not separated in conventional separators, thanks to droplet size increase through coalescence in an electric field. Crude desalting can be achieved by injecting and emulsifying dilution water in the electric field. PROSERNAT electrostatic coalescers can meet the most stringent specifications, down to 0.5 PTB (Pound per Thousand Barrels) of salts - 0.1% BSW (Basic Sediments and Water). ...

  • Equipment design matters

    Many attractive projects fail to meet expectations at startup. Disappointing performance often results from bad simulation practices and/or poor equipment design rather than faulty execution. Refineries are currently considering FCC revamps to increase olefins for more alky unit feed, maximize LCO product recovery, and minimize slurry product by producing HCO for hydrocracker feed. These changes raise fractionator operating temperature. Higher temperatures require better process ...

  • Fractional crystallization

    Crystallization is one of the most powerful purification methods available in process engineering. Fractional crystallization is a stagewise separation technique that relies upon liquid-solid phase transition and enables multicomponent mixtures to be split into narrow fractions, ultimately leading to top purities of selected components, through the virtue of selectivity found in solid liquid equilibria. Fractional crystallization is most frequently encountered in the separation ...

  • Gas processing

    ProMax® is a powerful and versatile process simulation package that is used worldwide to design and optimize gas processing, refining and chemical facilities. Totally integrated with Microsoft Visio®, Excel® and Word®, ProMax is the best simulation tool for designing gas plants and predicting performance under varying process conditions. Discover why engineers around the world depend on ProMax! • Model any NGL, LNG, LPG recovery and fractionation process • ...

  • Gas sweetening solutions

    Our Expertise, a global solution adapted to each case: Design suitable for Gas Plants, LNG Plants, Refineries, Biogas, Shale Gas and Syngas. Efficient and reliable amine sweetening processes: The AdvAmine™ series of processes • Can treat any sour gas composition • Achieves the most severe specifications • Tailor made solvent composition and process configurations adapted to your specific case • Open market chemicals to reduce solvent costs • Specific ...

  • High sulphur recovery at low cost with SmartSulf™

    Process Principle: Thermal stage: acid gases are burnt with air to produce sulphur at high temperature thanks to Claus reaction. COS and CS2 hydrolysis: COS and CS2 from the process gases are hydrolyzed at high temperature in the first zone of the SmartSulf™ reactor operating in hot mode. Claus Reaction: Claus reaction occurs in the second zone of the hot mode SmartSulf™ reactor, where heat of reaction is continuously removed by thermoplates internals, thus increasing ...

  • HOERBIGER - your partner for refinery and petrochemical applications

    Leading expertise for constantly changing requirements. Refineries, petrochemical and chemical plants use compressors to pressurize gas at high temperatures for a number of chemical reactions. In these industries, the largest and highest performing reciprocating compressors are used in order to adequately pressurize the process gas. Thereby plant availability, reliability of machinery, profitability and safety are of great importance. With his groundbreaking invention of the ...

  • HydroCOM - experience real capacity control and energy savings

    How much control do you really have when it comes to capacity control? You have many options available to you for controlling capacity for your reciprocating compressor. HydroCOM, however, achieves best results in terms of speed, energy savings and accuracy. Some questions you should ask yourself about your existing control system: -  Economical aspects Does my control system waste energy like a bypass valve? -  Control range Does my control system have large control ...

  • HySWEET® the best option for mercaptan removal from natural gas

    HySWEET® process is a hybrid solvent process developed by TOTAL and licensed by PROSERNAT. The solvent is a blend of alkanolamine and physical solvent diluted with water. The physical component has been selected by TOTAL in order to simultaneously achieve a high level of mercaptan’s absorption with a relatively low level of hydrocarbon co-absorption. Thanks to its specific solvent formulation HySWEET® exhibits major advantages compared to other gas sweetening process ...

  • IFPACC™ a new generation of structured packings for gas treatment

    A joint development between IFP Energies nouvelles and PROSERNAT. Characteristics: A novel structured packing geometry, Adapted to the constraints of acid gas removal by amine solvents, Geometric area of 200 m2/m3, Tested at industrial scale (Ø 1 m column), High effective to geometric area ratio of up to 1.4 depending on the liquid load Key Benefits • Higher flow capacity than other packings that generate similar mass transfer rates • Debottlenecking potential • ...

  • Ifpexol™ IFPEn integrated process for natural gas full treatment

    Ifpexol uses refrigerated methanol for the complete treatment (dehydration, NGL recovery and sweetening) of natural gas. The Ifpexol process is based on two independent steps. Methanol is used as hydrate inhibitor in a cold process for NGL extraction : The mixture of methanol and water recovered at the low temperature separator is regenerated by simple stripping with a fraction of the feed gas and pure water is produced. Ifpexol has been implemented on 15 industrial NG dewpointing ...

  • IsoTherming® hydroprocessing technology

    DuPont Sustainable Solutions offers IsoTherming® hydroprocessing technology, a commercially proven breakthrough process which provides refiners a significantly more economical means to produce today’s ultra low sulfur transportation fuels. DuPont acquired the technology in August 2007. In conventional hydroprocessing technology, the reactions occur in the liquid phase. A large volume of hydrogen rich recycle gas is combined with the reactor feed to ensure that the ...

  • Making the invisible visible

    In FCC Units (Fluidised Catalyst Cracking Units) the atmospheric residue from the distillation is cracked to LPG, naptha and other components. This sometimes leads to “invisible” deposits inside the Riser. This article features Tracerco’s ThruVision™ scans to illustrate how the technology helped the refinery to identify these deposits at an early stage. Bayernoil operates two FCC Units to convert heavy hydrocarbons. In the FCC Unit the feed is injected ...

  • Maximize reliability in grassroots crude units

    Crude unit operators are far too familiar with a long list of crude unit reliability problems including fouling in heat exchangers and fired heaters, poor desalting, corrosion of piping and equipment, and coking in the vacuum column wash zone. Many millions of dollars have been spent fighting these problems, yet they continue to force unplanned shutdowns with depressing regularity. Revamps must address reliability issues, but project scope is hindered by the limitations of existing ...

  • Maximize the value of your naphtha feedstocks and downstream processes

    New solutions for changing needs Lighten the burden of heavy feedstocks with Topsoe catalysts, process designs and technologies. If your refinery is like most, you’re under pressure to squeeze more value out of heavier feedstocks, and this presents new challenges for catalysts. To name just one example, increasing use of coker feedstocks has led to higher silica and nitrogen levels in the naphtha streams, requiring catalysts with superior HDN activity and greater surface ...

  • MECS® sulfuric acid and environmental technologies

    Is the leading provider of proprietary process technology, speciality products and technical services to the global sulfuric acid industry. MECS® has provided best-in-class sulfuric acid plant processes, clean technologies, and specialty products to a wide distribution of industries for over 80 years. Our proprietary solutions are engineered to perform and built to last. MECS® is the global leader in sulfuric acid plant design and technology licensing for the phosphate ...

  • MEG regeneration & reclaiming technology

    Benefits of Installing a MEG Recovery Unit - Strong increase in demand for natural gas leads to more development of deep offshore gas deposits with deeper wells, longer subsea pipelines, higher pressures and lower temperatures. Under such conditions, hydrate formation - that blocks flow lines and can cause plant shutdowns - is a major risk so effective hydrate inhibition is key. Injection of large volumes of Monoethylene Glycol (MEG) at the wellhead is an effective way to prevent ...

  • Modern crude distillation, modularized

    Global interest in modular refinery construction is surging. Small modular refineries are attractive to investors for several important reasons: SPEED: Project time from contract execution to start-up can be as short as 18-24 months. LOGISTICAL ADVANTAGES:Modular refineries can be built in remote locations to realize efficiencies in supply and transportation of raw crude and refined products. LOW INITIAL COST: Small relative size makes initial capital cost more manageable. Modules ...

  • Moving gamma scanning forward – quantitative analysis of tray capacity

    Improving process operating margins can include maximising production of higher value products and/or minimising production costs. Process plants depend heavily on fractionation towers to produce products meeting customer specifications. Tower gamma scanning is well established in the process industries as a qualitative tool to help troubleshoot fractionation towers. Using new measurement detector technology and innovative analysis of gamma scanning data Tracerco is now able to ...

  • Myth of the 1000°F vacuum unit cutpoint

    Canadian Synbit and Dilbit crudes will come to make-up a substantial fraction of feedstocks to North American refineries. Today, however, for the most part refiners both north and south of the 40° parallel seem to be unaware of the extreme challenges this change will present. To run an oil sands crude in a vacuum unit designed for conventional heavy feedstocks and to expect a 1000°F cutpoint for a 5-6 year run is like believing in the Tooth Fairy. Bitumen based crudes ...

  • Nasty stuff

    Heavy crudes are here to stay. As longs as oil prices remain high, Canadian, Venezuelan, Deep Water Gulf of Mexico, Mexican and other low API gravity crude oils will play an ever more important role in supplying world refineries. And prices promise to remain high because gainsayers notwithstanding, Hubbert was right. A big question is how to handle best these nasty crudes? Do you revamp existing units or invest in new capacity? With refineries now running flat out, the balance ...

  • On budget, on time, offine

    Flawless project execution will not prevent a unit shutdown due to selecting the wrong metallurgy for a challenging crude slate. No matter how well it is fabricated and installed, a shell and tube exchanger with cold, high viscosity vacuum resid on the tube side will have poor heat transfer performance. On-time shipping and installation of a too-small desalter will not prevent crude column overhead corrosion if the centerline velocity is overly optimistic for the design crude. A ...

  • Opportunity knocks

    A group of interesting articles* deals with opportunity crudes, a mixed breed that includes very heavy, sour and high total acid number types as well as those with unexceptional naphthenic acid content but which do have significant concentrations of aliphatic acids or possess the ability to generate them during processing. They all sell at substantial discounts that give refiners who can process them the opportunity to reap higher profits. Hence their name. Note that phrase ...

  • Opportunity or Annoyance?

    Price differentials between conventional and opportunity crudes compel refiners to process increasing percentages of lower valued opportunity crude. However, as many refiners have learned the hard way, opportunity crudes are tied to unique processing challenges. Furthermore, existing crude unit configurations may limit high profit opportunity crude to a disappointingly small proportion of the total unit blend. Processing a changing slate of opportunity crudes of varying compositions ...

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