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24-10-2022

Safety advantages of using AET’s Sulfex™ for desulfurization

Alternative Environmental Technologies Holdings Corp, combats climate change via technologies which minimize the environmental impact of fuels.  However, in addition to the environmental benefits, certain of its technologies also offer major safety benefits.

Stringent United States Environmental Protection Agency and global environmental regulations are demanding dramatic reductions in sulfur levels in fossil fuels to less than 15 parts per million (PPM) from the several hundred PPM and heavy oils from several percent to less than 1% that they presently have.  Today this is done globally using Hydrodesulfurization (Hydrotreating or HDS).  Besides operating a hydrotreater, many sites also use steam reforming to make hydrogen which adds an additional level of complexity and hazards.  The main cost saving advantage of AET’s patent-pending approach is that the fuel is not processed under high temperatures and pressures. It also does not need large amounts of ancillary equipment. These items are both capital and operationally expensive.  Sulfex™ is operationally much simpler and thus not just much cheaper, 1/10th of the capital costs and ½ of the operating costs, but also much safer to use than traditional processes.  From a safety perspective, Sulfex has a number of advantages.

SAFER OPERATING CONDITIONS:
The first safety advantage is due to safer operating conditions.  HDS requires high pressure and high temperature to operate.

Pressure: (psig)
            SulfexTM:  0 +/-
            HDS:     430 - 1900
            HDS w/Methane Steam Reforming:  430-1900
Safety Implications of HDS:  Explosive Rupture

Temperature (C):
            Sulfex:  100 +/-
            HDS:  300 – 400
Safety Implications:  Burn

SAFER CHEMICAL REACTANTS:
The second safety advantage are the safer chemical reactants that are used by Sulfex™ vs HDS:

SulfexTM Uses:
            Hydrogen Peroxide – Mild oxidizer, used in households
            Sulfuric Acid – Strong oxidizer, used in vehicles
            Acetic Acid – Weak oxidizer, used in households

HDS Uses:
            Hydrogen – Severe explosibility, flammability

HDS w/Methane Stream Reforming Uses:
            Hydrogen – Severe explosibility, flammability
            Methane – Explosibility, flammability

SAFER CHEMICAL BYPRODUCTS:
HDS creates much more dangerous byproducts:

SulfexTM Byproducts:
            Sulfones – Low to Mild toxicity

HDS Byproducts:
            Hydrogen Sulfide – Severely poisonous, explosibility and flammability
            Carbon Dioxide – Asphyxiant

HDS w/Methane Steam Reforming Byproducts:
            Carbon Monoxide/Dioxide - Asphyxiant

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