Steam Jet Vacuum Pumps
Jet vacuum pumps are used to create and maintain the vacuum in evaporators, driers, in distillation and rectification plants, and in the processes of freeze drying, polycondensation, degassing and deodorizing.
These sorts of equipment consist fundamentally of jet pumps and condensers or of a combination with other vacuum pumps such as, e.g. liquid ring vacuum pumps.
How does this sort of pump work?
Jet pumps use the expansion work of a motive medium to create the vacuum. A high velocity jet is generated in the motive nozzle; at low suction pressure, this jet entrains the suction medium and accelerates its path. Through transformation of the kinetic energy, this mixture is brought up to a higher pressure level in the throat and the diffuser of the ejector.
Jet pumps have three connections:
- for the motive medium with the highest pressure p1
- for the suction medium with the lowest pressure p0
- for the discharge of motive and suction media with a medium pressure p.
Given a sufficiently high expansion ratio of p1/p0, single stage jet pumps achieve a compression ratio (p/p0) up to 20. The higher the expansion ratio, the less motive medium you will need. The higher the compression ratio the more motive medium you will need.
Generally, multi-stage vacuum pumps are used for suction pressures under 100 mbar. For the most effective use of energy, the motive medium and the condensable compounds are condensed between two stages.
The condensation pressure depends on the temperature of the cooling medium and characteristics of the motive medium. If you use water vapour as motive medium and if you have cooling water of 25 °C available, this pressure will be around 60 mbar.
Surface condensers are usually preferred as inter condensers to avoid any possible contamination
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