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  • A single integrated vacuum system

    Failure to design the vacuum unit as an integrated system will invariably result in unsatisfactory yield and poor product quality (high vanadium, nickel, microcarbon, or asphaltenes), and ultimately, an unscheduled shutdown. To avoid these revamp problems the charge pump, fired heater, transfer line, column internals and ejector system must all be evaluated and designed as a unified whole so that critical variables – heater outlet temperature, coil steam injection rate, ...

  • About Axens

    Axens is a group providing a complete range of solutions for the conversion of oil and biomass to cleaner fuels, the production and purification of major petrochemical intermediates as well as all of natural gas' treatment and conversion options. The offer includes technologies, equipment, furnaces, modular units, catalysts, adsorbents and related services. Axens is ideally positioned to cover the entire value chain, from feasibility study to unit start-up and follow-up throughout ...

  • All about excellence in the energy and chemical industry

    KBC exists to help you achieve and sustain excellent operational performance, through the actions of our people, fused with the application of our digitalization technology and best practices, powered by the Cloud.Better decisions - faster, Flawless execution - every time and  Superior results - sustained. Deliver value: Performance assurance Organizations that perform at their best are able to adjust to changing dynamics without compromising competitiveness. KBC ...

  • Avoid fired heater coking

    For many refiners, heater coking in Crude and Vacuum Distillation Units (CDU/VDUs) is a common occurrence. Many units around the world are shut down every two years, every year, or even every six months to deal with chronic heater coking. However, with the right design features driven by a solid understanding of heater coking mechanisms, fired heater run length can be extended beyond five years, even with relatively challenging crudes. The two primary drivers of heater tube ...

  • Axens engineering services revamping

    For a successful revamping project, no matter the degree of its complexity, and in accordance with your tight schedules, Axens is your unique contact during the phase preceding detailed engineering. Axens’ offer is based on our well founded expertise and several decades of experience. Our team of equipment specialists and our extensive network of detailed engineering contractors and equipment manufacturers complete this offer.   Our approach consists of successive ...

  • Axens hydrocracking

    Axens is an established name in hydrocracking licensing with more than 40 years’ experience in all types of hydrocracking processes. We have a large portfolio of hydroconversion processes, including fixed and ebullated-bed technologies. Our commercial units operate at low, medium and high conversion, and in once through, single-stage recycle and two-stage modes. Our commercial hydrocracker designs can cover a large variety of feedstocks varying from light HGO and LVGO ...

  • Axens overview

    Axens is a group providing a complete range of solutions for the conversion of oil and biomass to cleaner fuels, the production and purification of major petrochemical intermediates as well as all of natural gas' treatment and conversion options. The offer includes technologies, equipment, furnaces, modular units, catalysts, adsorbents and related services. Axens is ideally positioned to cover the entire value chain, from feasibility study to unit start-up and follow-up ...

  • Axens tech services

    Operating personnel are uncomfortable with changes affecting operations such as: process upsets, catalyst regeneration and replacement, changes in feedstock, modified product specifications, evolution of production goals and new operating staff. In coping with these changes, your resources - manpower, know-how and experience, are often strained. Axens’ Tech Service Agreements (TSAs) are attractive as they allow you to expand your qualified resources at regular intervals ...

  • Be smart about FCC olefin recovery

    Whether the driver is propylene as a chemicals feedstock or propylene and butylene as alky feed, FCC units worldwide are being pushed to maximize olefin production. Increased hydrotreating to meet Tier 3 gasoline requirements is reducing gasoline pool octane at a time of high premium-to-regular gasoline price differentials. Maximizing FCC olefi ns to produce high octane alkylate barrels is attractive – if they can be recovered in the FCC gas plant LPG stream. Higher reactor ...

  • Beyond the column: Sulzer ESR

    New bypass line between diesel draw-off line to side stripper, new bypass valve, incl. update of P&ID, piping isometrics and pipe

  • Caustic tower revamp

    A customer contacted Sulzer to increase capacity while improving the CO2 removal in the existing CO2 absorption column of their ethylene plant. This was the third revamp for this particular column and continued improvements can be hard to find. A proper caustic tower design requires a proper understanding of CO2 absorption with caustic. CO2 + 2NaOH Na2CO3 + H2O Sulzer replaced the conventional random packing with NeXRing and modified the operating parameters to match the ...

  • CeraLine elbows, pipe & spool linings

    Specifically designed for the harsh environments within mining, power generation and other heavy industrial processing industries, Blasch’s new CeraLine family of products exhibits exceptional wear and abrasion resistance which results in unparalleled life. Elbow diameters ranging from ½” up to several feet can be lined with Blasch pre-cast tight tolerance shapes available with engineered joints and smooth bore that eliminates premature wear and interrupted flow. Available ...

  • Cetek Ceramic Coatings

    Ceramic coatings for fired heaters: Integrated Global Services (IGS) apply Cetek coatings across the globe. Numerous fired heater applications have been completed over 20 years. Process engineers typically see a 4-10% increase in fired heater efficiency, leading to millions in fuel savings and increased profits. Reduced harmful emissions help asset owners and operators meet current and emerging environmental legislations. Tube Scale - Barrier to Heat Transfer Increased fuel/energy ...

  • CO2 reduction in fried equipment

    Fired heaters emit millions of tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) every year. Fired heaters usually have a fuel efficiency well below 100%, so any improvements that making them more efficient reduces CO2. Heaters are currently fuelled by carbon-bearing refinery fuel gas or natural gas, so further CO2 reduction is possible by changing to fuels with less carbon content. With the ever-changing regulatory climate, enacting an emissions reduction plan can provide a strategic advantage ...

  • Condensate is crude

    Ultra-light crudes and condensates are here to stay. These streams have flooded the market in recent years, and many of them are deeply discounted against reference crudes. Refiners have been processing increasing percentages of this light material through their Crude Distillation Units (CDUs) up against unit naphtha handling limits. On the surface, processing condensate and other ultra-light crudes with high API gravity and low sulfur should be easy. In reality, many refiners ...

  • Customized grading solutions for your feedstock

    Match your catalyst grading to your feedstock for minimum pressure drop build-up and maximum demetallization. As today’s opportunity crudes and heavier feedstocks become more economically viable, the oil fractions you refine are posing new challenges. Creating the optimal grading solution for your individual feedstock is essential to minimize pressure drop build-up, increase metals pick-up, and reduce downtime and catalyst replacement. An overlooked advantage The importance ...

  • Designing deepcut vacuum units that really work

    Every barrel of vacuum gas oil (VGO) you can save from being reduced to coke in the delayed coker unit is a barrel more that can go to the FCCU. That’s a good reason to raise HVGO cutpoint. But how to do it? Some people think the job can be done just by running computer models in the engineering office, relying on vendors and their data sheets for a clue to true equipment performance. Experience, however, shows it just ain't so. For either a grass roots project or a revamp, ...

  • Diagnostics™ Leak Study Optimise Ammonia Synthesis Loop

    How can Tracerco help optimise performance in my ammonia synthesis loop? If you are trying to determine why the ammonia synthesis line is not performing as efficiently as expected, a series of tracer tests can be carried out for troubleshooting the different processing loops of ammonia synthesis and converter lines. Tracerco Diagnostics™ Leak studies have proven invaluable in identifying potential areas or locations of leakage within an ammonia synthesis processing loop, converter, ...

  • Equipment design matters

    Many attractive projects fail to meet expectations at startup. Disappointing performance often results from bad simulation practices and/or poor equipment design rather than faulty execution. Refineries are currently considering FCC revamps to increase olefins for more alky unit feed, maximize LCO product recovery, and minimize slurry product by producing HCO for hydrocracker feed. These changes raise fractionator operating temperature. Higher temperatures require better process ...

  • Expertise beyond the column LPG Treating

    DC Coalescer™. Composite two-material design with very different surface free energies — typically metal and plastic. This simple principle offers notable advantages over conventional, single medium alternatives. The combination of both high and low surface energies gives effective separation irrespective of which phase is dispersed. The rate of coalescence is significantly increased.

  • FCC Main Fractionator Coking

    One common cause for coking is poor vapor distribution. Packing selection in the Slurry P/A section is critical to ensure good distribution and reliable performance. Mellagrid™ combines the performance of Mellapak™ with the robustness of traditional grid. Resists coking and fouling due to its smooth surface and geometrical. Better de-entrainment and separation efficiency than traditional grid. Efficient dissipation of temperature. Excellent mechanical strength.

  • Gain 5-10% efficiency with this simple 4-pass tray revamp

    The design of 4-pass trays can be complex. It not only requires a close evaluation of the mechanical design but also the process response to that design at various flow rates. The balancing of the fluid flows across the tray can have a substantial effect on the tray performance, namely efficiency. Many existing columns are operating with older 4-pass designs. While some of these are well designed, others could use some improvement. Since 4-pass trays always involve a fairly ...

  • Gas/Liquid separation technology

    Sulzer is a major player in the field of gas/liquid and liquid/liquid separation technology, offering a full range of innovative products and related services. Our commitment to development of technology, combined with application knowhow and consistent fabrication standards ensures that a well-engineered solution is available for most separation problems. Our expertise gained from hundreds of successful installations in a broad spectrum of applications ensures that the best ...

  • High Velocity Thermal Spray (HV TS) Advantages

    With experience from hundreds of projects, not only in the power industry but also in other highly EHS sensitive industries such as nuclear and oil & gas, IGS has an unmatched track record to comply with the most stringent requirements on environment, health and safety standards. IGS has consistently led the industry in HVTS protection for over 30 years. We operate a world-wide, ISO 9001, ISO 14001, ISO 45001 Technology center which has allowed us to create, test and improve ...

  • Improve separation in your column by increasing the number of trays

    Refiners often face revamp challenges when trying to improve separation within an existing column. Improving diesel recovery from gas oil, splitting benzene precursors from naphtha reformer charge, or simply minimizing product overlaps after capacity creep can all be difficult when limited by a fi xed existing tower height. For these cases, revamp solutions that increase the number of theoretical stages by adding trays to an existing column or a section of a column pay large dividends. ...

  • Increase capacity in your column with a tray design revamp

    When trying to increase column capacity beyond design rates, an operator may notice loss in separation efficiency or high pressure drop, indicative of either vapor phase or liquid phase hydraulic limitations. An optimized tray design can eliminate hydraulic constraints to provide better column capacity and performance. Common Vapor Constraints to Raising Throughput In systems limited by higher vapor rates (typically lower pressure systems), jet flooding may constrain the column. ...

  • Is pinch enough?

    Back in the late 1970’s and early 1980’s when fuel gas prices were high, energy utilization assumed major importance. A new method of calculating heat exchanger networks was developed. It was called Pinch Technology. Today pinch has been rediscovered by engineers who have access to fast computer simulation models. But as occurs with any older method that is rediscovered by a newer generation, enthusiasm generated by the rediscovery tends to obscure the deficiencies ...

  • Lube Oil Vacuum Tower revamp

    Pressure drop is a critical operating parameter for Vacuum Towers. A Lube Oil Vacuum Tower with dislodged floating valves was revamped with Sulzer’s high performance MVG™ fixed valves, reducing column pressure drop 15%. V-Grid™ trays offer reliable performance with substantial energy savings and increased run length. V-Grid tray technology: - Lower pressure drop - High efficiency over a wide operating range - Superior mechanical strength - Excellent fouling resis ...

  • Maximize reliability in grassroots crude units

    Crude unit operators are far too familiar with a long list of crude unit reliability problems including fouling in heat exchangers and fired heaters, poor desalting, corrosion of piping and equipment, and coking in the vacuum column wash zone. Many millions of dollars have been spent fighting these problems, yet they continue to force unplanned shutdowns with depressing regularity. Revamps must address reliability issues, but project scope is hindered by the limitations of existing ...

  • Maximize the value of your naphtha feedstocks and downstream processes

    New solutions for changing needs Lighten the burden of heavy feedstocks with Topsoe catalysts, process designs and technologies. If your refinery is like most, you’re under pressure to squeeze more value out of heavier feedstocks, and this presents new challenges for catalysts. To name just one example, increasing use of coker feedstocks has led to higher silica and nitrogen levels in the naphtha streams, requiring catalysts with superior HDN activity and greater surface ...

  • Maximizing diesel recovery in your columns

    Increased demand for automotive diesel is challenging refiners to adjust operating strategies to maximize middle distillate production. While some refiners choose to alter catalyst formulations or build new cracking units to increase diesel yields, optimizing the separation between gas oil and distillate in existing columns can be an excellent opportunity with little or no investment. Areas of Opportunity to Optimize Diesel Cuts Diesel streams are drawn from the primary fractionators ...

  • Modern crude distillation, modularized

    Global interest in modular refinery construction is surging. Small modular refineries are attractive to investors for several important reasons: SPEED: Project time from contract execution to start-up can be as short as 18-24 months. LOGISTICAL ADVANTAGES:Modular refineries can be built in remote locations to realize efficiencies in supply and transportation of raw crude and refined products. LOW INITIAL COST: Small relative size makes initial capital cost more manageable. Modules ...

  • Myth of the 1000°F vacuum unit cutpoint

    Canadian Synbit and Dilbit crudes will come to make-up a substantial fraction of feedstocks to North American refineries. Today, however, for the most part refiners both north and south of the 40° parallel seem to be unaware of the extreme challenges this change will present. To run an oil sands crude in a vacuum unit designed for conventional heavy feedstocks and to expect a 1000°F cutpoint for a 5-6 year run is like believing in the Tooth Fairy. Bitumen based crudes ...

  • Nasty stuff

    Heavy crudes are here to stay. As longs as oil prices remain high, Canadian, Venezuelan, Deep Water Gulf of Mexico, Mexican and other low API gravity crude oils will play an ever more important role in supplying world refineries. And prices promise to remain high because gainsayers notwithstanding, Hubbert was right. A big question is how to handle best these nasty crudes? Do you revamp existing units or invest in new capacity? With refineries now running flat out, the balance ...

  • Oil sands crude — profits and problems?

    Canadian bitumen production currently runs about 1 MMbpd, with some being sold as Synbit and Dilbit. Over the next 10-12 years output is expected to increase to 3.5 MMbpd and more refiners will begin investing to process it and come to depend on the Synbit and Dilbit for a significant part of their supply. Few today, however, have ever processed these feeds at high blend ratios, and are unaware that conventional process and equipment designs are not up to the job. Canadian oil ...

  • On budget, on time, offline

    Flawless project execution will not prevent a unit shutdown due to selecting the wrong metallurgy for a challenging crude slate. No matter how well it is fabricated and installed, a shell and tube exchanger with cold, high viscosity vacuum resid on the tube side will have poor heat transfer performance. On-time shipping and installation of a too-small desalter will not prevent crude column overhead corrosion if the centerline velocity is overly optimistic for the design crude. A ...

  • Opportunity knocks

    A group of interesting articles* deals with opportunity crudes, a mixed breed that includes very heavy, sour and high total acid number types as well as those with unexceptional naphthenic acid content but which do have significant concentrations of aliphatic acids or possess the ability to generate them during processing. They all sell at substantial discounts that give refiners who can process them the opportunity to reap higher profits. Hence their name. Note that phrase ...

  • Processing heavy Canadian crude

    Reducing crude oil cost is the major incentive driving crude and vacuum unit projects to handle heavy Canadian crudes. But such crudes–Albian Heavy, Christina Lake, MacKay River and others derived from oil sands–today present refiners with a unique set of problems not just because of extra-low API gravity, but also because of asphaltenes, vanadium and nickel, high solids content and extremely high viscosity vacuum residues. To process such crudes reliably over a 4-5 ...

  • Profiler™ TGA

    The Profiler™ TGA provides extremely reliable liquid level and interface measurements for alkylation units and other harsh service environments. The Profiler™ TGA is specifically designed to measure the vertical distribution of multiple interfaces in real time and at high resolution. Key features - Extremely reliable - Low maintenance Benefits - Reduces possibility of acid runaway - Increases production throughput - Optimises acid recirculation - Provides real-time ...

  • Proper design of mass transfer internals in the FCC flue gas scrubber can help reduce PM emissions

    The EPA’s New Source Performance Standards (40 C.F.R. §60.100-1-0, subpart Ja) regulates refinery particulate emissions, including the discharge of catalyst fines from the FCCU flue gas scrubber stack. Because refiners have traditionally correlated particulate matter (PM) emissions with FCCU cokeburn, high flue gas stack PM can result in reducing severity or throughput in the FCCU at a potentially huge economic cost. The proper selection of mass transfer internals in ...

  • Safeguard packed column efficiency with proper liquid distribution

    Initial liquid distribution directly affects the efficiency of structured and random packing beds. As such, some form of flow test should be conducted to validate distributor performance prior to column startup. Steady state water flow testing is the most common method of testing distributors. It can be conducted in the shop or in the field to verify the design, manufacture and installation. Three Common Types of Liquid Distributor Flow Tests • Liquid Range Test with ...

  • Separator technology reduces refinery operating costs and downtime

    A US refining company contacted us to discuss a separation problem in the feed to an alkylation process. Caustic entrainment from their selective hydrogenation unit was poisoning the hydrofluoric acid catalyst in the alkylation unit. The continuous phase feed to the alkylation unit consisted of ~180m3/hr of mixed C4 hydrocarbons, mainly butanes and butylenes, with varying levels of 10 – 20% caustic solution entrained as a dispersed aqueous phase. Sulzer was commissioned ...

  • Seven reasons why maintenance managers choose HVTS vs HVOF

    1. Market Recognition - 2. Porosity & Oxides Level - 3. Production Rate - 4. Variable Thickness - 5. Refurbishability - 6. On-site Safety, Quality, and Environment Protection - 7. Project Management.

  • Tracerco Diagnostics™ Distribution study - FCC stripper

    Uniform distribution of catalyst and steam in a stripper is critical to achieve high stripping efficiency (less carry-down of hydrocarbon products from reactor to regenerator). A failure to effectively remove hydrocarbon from the catalyst will result in a loss of product, lower throughput, and lower catalyst activity due to increased regenerator bed temperature. The Field Test Tracerco was contacted to conduct distribution studies for a leading refiner that was experiencing ...

  • Tray design features that reduce turnaround maintenance time

    Column shutdowns can be costly. Production is halted and maintenance expenses accumulate without any offsetting revenue. Maintenance crews need to isolate, open, inspect, modify, repair, and close columns, all under pressure to complete work as expeditiously as possible. Minimization of shutdown costs begins during the equipment design phase. Sulzer incorporates several features into our tray designs that can reduce column shutdown time. Tray Replacement and Installation Tray ...

  • Turnaround services and replacement equipment for mass transfer components

    Sulzer Chemtech has over 50 years of experience in providing outstanding mass transfer technology, process engineering and equipment. Our global coverage allows us to bring our services to you, day or night, in almost every country of the world. Our employees are ready with the conviction, enthusiasm and attitude to offer not only quality products, but excellent service. Our goal is to meet your requirements and challenges while providing the most cost effective solutions with ...

  • When reliable operation and easy inspection is key

    Topsoe’s outlet collector is easy to install and inspect and help ensure even flow distribution in the bottom of the reactor. It is important to have the best catalyst to ensure optimal performance of your hydroprocessing unit. However, it is equally important to have the best reactor internals to ensure the optimal flow conditions for the catalytic reactions in your reactor. Topsoe’s outlet collector ensures even flow distribution in the bottom bed thereby maximizing ...

  • Why do many crude/vacuum units perform poorly?

    In many cases it’s because the original design was based more on virtual than actual reality. There is no question: computer simulations have a key role to play but it’s equally true that process design needs to be based on what works in the field and not on the ideals of the process simulator. Nor should the designer simply base the equipment selection on vendor-stated performance. The design engineer needs to have actual refinery process engineering experience, not ...

  • Why produce diesel from the vacuum unit?

    Look ahead five years. The economy is likely to keep tightening and the rush to control pollution will inevitably be accompanied by demands for greater energy conservation. Consequence? A growing market for diesel which yields more energy per unit volume. Yet many continue to believe that producing diesel from the vacuum unit is poor design—that it should be produced only from the atmospheric column. Hence many refiners feed 20-30% diesel boiling range material to their ...

  • XRG Technologies, Services and Solutions

    XRG Technologies is an innovative engineering and procurement firm focused on fired and unfired heat transfer equipment for the refining, petrochemical, and power markets. We collaborate with our partners to solve complex problems and manage projects from concept to completion. We have brought together a team of fired heater, burner, boiler, flare, and thermal oxidizer experts to create one centralized, go-to engineering firm for all your process equipment needs.

  • Introduction to the Sinopec Closed Coke Handling System

    The Sinopec Closed Coke Handling System (S-CCHS) is a safe and eco-friendly closed petroleum coke removal, conveying, and storage system with remote intelligent operation for pollution-free coke removal. This webinar will introduce the technology and its applications, with an emphasis on how it can be applied in your delayed coking unit operations. By attending, you will gain insights into: - Components and operation of the S-CCHS technology - How S-CCHS can eliminate ...

  • New digital tools to improve operational profitability in refineries

    View this webinar to learn how you can leverage new digital tools as part of the Honeywell UOP upgraded PremierPLUS Performance Services offering to avoid unplanned downtime, optimize process performance, manage personnel changes, and reduce energy and emissions. The PremierPLUS Performance Services offering addresses these challenges and can improve operational profitability by an average of $1M to $5M per year. Attending this webinar will give you an overview of Honeywell ...

  • Excel® Technology: The Sustainable Solution for HydroProcessing Catalysts

    Unveil the path to sustainable catalyst processes with Excel® Rejuvenation Technology! Join us as we delve into the art of catalyst rejuvenation, uncovering the means to propel your processes towards enhanced sustainability and waste reduction. Learn how to steer your operations away from wasteful practices and embrace sustainability using Evonik's Excel® Hydroprocessing Catalysts solutions. Our certified Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) lays bare the potential emissions you can ...

  • A new perspective on improving process and operational efficiencies

    Presented with ageing equipment and ever-increasing environmental restrictions, process engineers are challenged with maximizing efficiency and mitigating problems. Without the necessary information, facing this challenge can be difficult or impossible. Tracerco provides you with the insights you need to help troubleshoot production problems and optimise processes. With the widest range of scanning and tracer diagnostic services on the market, Tracerco helps the refining and ...

  • Preparing for a petrochemical plant revamp or technology upgrade

    Petrochemical producers have recently confronted unprecedented volatility in crude oil prices and limits on advantaged feedstock, while the refining and gas sectors remain vigilant to global supply conditions. However, some industry challenges remain unchanged, such as the need to optimize plant operations and cut carbon footprint by reducing the amount of energy required to drive a plant. Equipment nearing the end of its operational life can not only put plants at risk of ...

  • The case for plant modernization and upgrades

    With a system that's outdated or showing signs of it, you are well aware of the risks of running your plant processes with aging hardware and software. Waiting to modernize will impact your cost of ownership due to shortages of critical parts and support, will increase risk of an unplanned production shutdown, and likely will have no incremental benefits. A well-designed modernization approach allows the opportunity to reduce system footprint and costs. Whether by eliminating ...

  • Understanding the financial impact of a collapsed flue gas tunnel in your SMR

    The overall influence of tunnels on the flue gas flow in a steam methane reformer has been modeled and documented, and the concept that running a reformer without tunnels can decrease overall efficiency is well understood in the industry. The study detailed in this webinar focuses on the effects of operating a reformer after removing just a single tunnel, leaving the rest in place. The resultant flue gas flow field is analyzed by looking at temperature profiles, residence time ...

  • From hydrogen production to sulphur recovery - let ceramics pave the way

    Learn how to boost the reliability and performance of your hydrogen production and sulphur recovery plants through the deployment of Blasch’s proven ceramic systems. Benefits include: - Higher plant reliability and much longer run-lengths - 60 -90% faster installation times - Capacity increase - Annual energy savings of several hundred thousand dollars for SRUs - Lower emissions   Flue gas tunnels in Steam Methane Reformers warp and fail causing non uniform flow ...